Appendix A) Chronology and Continuity
Chronology, I’ve learned, is a field that does not lend itself to complete
objectivity. Gaps in the narratives and various contradictory events presenting
themselves as histories force those of us in this field to one of two evils...
One, the chronologer leaves a question mark or blank space where he or she
doesn’t have complete facts to verify his claim. Or two, the chronologer fill
in the gaps with the best evidence available, keeping an eye out for more
information that might come to light. Either one presents a wholly
unsatisfactory and imperfect body of work, yet, as it can't be avoided, one or
both must be employed.
Following the tradition of chronologers of old, I’ve chosen to employ both techniques as the case warrants
it, leaning on the side of investigative deduction and educated guesswork. I never said the job was pretty. One must be confident in the dates and
placements when it’s called to fill in the gaps, yet also modest enough to make
changes when necessary. The goal is the objective truth of the history.
The following is a very brief
listing of notes I took during the compilation of these timelines. They
include some of the reasons behind my decisions to place events in a certain
time or place. It is by no means exhaustive, but rather a quick glimpse
into some of my meanderings regarding Oz questions and dilemmas. Spoilers
apply! Any comments,
email me here:
This timeline is more of a
‘Publications Timeline’ than an ‘Events Timeline,’ though elements of the
latter are present. The primary purpose of a
publications timeline is to put stories in the order in which they take place
and should be
read. Whatever events-based information appears on the timeline is there to help clarify
where certain events take place that haven't yet been detailed in story.
The Royal Timeline of Oz follows on Baum's concept
that Oz is real, and that as author of the Oz chronicles, he was not
a fiction writer, but a journalist and historian, detailing actual
events that have either been told to him by various Ozian personalities, or
which were transmitted to him through some other conveyance. As such, stories
almost always take place prior to
their publication date. The minimum time-frame a story can take place is
approximately just prior to the writing of the manuscript (not the date of
publication, as there must be time for the story to have been transmitted to
the writer/historian). With only one exception, Jack Snow's A Murder
in Oz, no story takes place
after it is written, an improbability that would make the
author, not an historian, but a prophet.
Contradictions, Inconsistencies, and Lapses of Continuity
As "The Royal Historian of Oz," Baum (and his successors) recounted actual stories that were told to him by
various persons in Oz. The real-world fact is that L. Frank Baum did not have the luxury of developing his Otherworld in private (as Tolkien did with his Middle-Earth stories). He developed his
mythology along the way, and, as a result of clarified conceptions, several lapses in continuity
came to exist, which not a few modern writers have since retconned. Retcons are an
effective way of fixing incongruities and reasonably explaining what only appear
on the surface to be contradictions. Retcons help the ongoing saga feel
more authentic and seamless, with less incongruities that take readers out of
the story. Other ways for readers to deal with the reality
of contradictions are questions that the reader can ask himself
when reading the Oz books:
Did the person (s) telling the Royal Historian
herself get all their facts straight? Could they have been mistaken or
misled? Might they have simply forgotten certain details?
Oftentimes when one tells an exciting story she or a friend had, pertinent
information is inadvertently left out. Also, might the one relating
the stories be prone to: a) exaggeration, b) omissions, c) confusion, d)
Might the author have unintentionally made mistakes, either forgetting
portions of the story, misremembering, or not fully understanding
the particulars of what he was told? This would especially be true if
the authors received the stories by means of dreams, visions, or impressions.
Similarly, if the story told was only barely sketched to them, the author
may have had to fill in the blanks, so to speak.
Might the author herself have deliberately altered the story: a)
out of consideration for her audience—excising details and/or toning down elements that
might be deemed
inappropriate for young readers, b) to appease her publisher, such as when
Reilly & Britton persuaded Baum to cut out the
entire "Garden of Meats" chapter due to its purportedly gruesome nature, c) to 'spice up' the
narrative, such as when as editor at Reilly & Lee re-wrote
Neill's Wonder City of Oz, altering the
original story and introducing foreign elements the author didn't know of.
In many cases, what appears to be a
continuity-error is in fact a story that hasn't yet been told (or which the
reader hasn't yet read), and in other scenarios, readers can internally fix an
unfixable contradiction by recognizing that the historian simply got the facts
Borderlands of Oz Books
Due to the fact that Baum crossed over Oz with his other fantasy-worlds (one of the first, if not
first to do so), the vast majority of his fantasy stories are set in the same universe.
These books and stories have been called "Borderlands" because their locations
are literally on the borders of Oz, either on the mainland or somewhere in the Nonestic
Ocean, which lies outside the mainland countries of Nonestica. In the past, there was some debate as to which of Baum's non-Oz
fantasy books constitute "Borderlands of Oz" books. Ruth Berman, author of
"Who's Who in the Borderlands of Oz" admits that "the division between
Borderlands and American fantasy titles is somewhat arbitrary," and I'm
inclined to agree. Yet even Berman leaves out three titles that I believe
belong in the category: Twinkle and Chubbins, Policeman Bluejay
and Animal Fairy Tales. Policeman Blujay (the sequel to
Twinkle and Chubbins) was a story Baum wanted to subtitle "An Oz
Tale," which is a strong indication that he regarded it as occurring in the same universe.
With that in mind, the stories that encompass both the American Fairy
Tales and the Animal
Fairy Tales book should likewise be considered as taking place in the same
universe, as they are fantasy stories, even if they take place in
the relatively non-magical outside world.
The Royal Timeline of Oz considers the
Borderlands of Oz books to consist of 15 titles in total. As many of Baum's short stories did not make it into a
dedicated collection until The International Wizard of Oz Club published
The Collected Short Stories of L. Frank Baum, I consider that book
the appropriate 15th Borderlands of Oz book, encompassing all of Baum's short stories from
American and Animal Fairy Tales, and particularly the ten short
stories that were never collected under one cover until the Club's publication. Even Berman considers many of these
short stories part of her Borderlands designation. Additionally, Thompson had Borderlands
stories as well, lest we forget that Pumperdink, the Silver Mountain, Patch
and Sun-Top Mountains all come
from her non-Oz works, e.g., "The Wizard of Way-Up" stories and other stories
she wrote for the Philadelphia Ledger. Similarly, characters like
Bustabo (from Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz) appear in her Sissajig
stories and Ogowan appears again in King Kojo (as Oh-Go-Wan). Thus, I've included the
International Wizard of Oz collections,
The Wizard of Way-Up and Other
Wonders, Sissajig and Other Stories and
King Kojo as Borderlands books as
well. See below for the complete list.
Defining Canon: The Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five
It must be understood first and foremost that Oz canon
is primarily the work of L. Frank Baum. His developing conception of Oz over the course of
his seventeen Oz stories, as well as his development of the otherworld, in
which Oz is located, and his non-Oz fantasies (which border Oz geographically
and narratively) is rightly first and foremost "true." While the
list of canonical books generally refers to those titles which were officially commissioned by Reilly & Lee
(the publisher who held the rights to the
books until they went into public domain, or reverted to the Baum Trust), the
fact is that Baum's successor Ruth Plumly Thompson had a tendency to jettison
many of Baum's progressive themes and concepts in favor of the far more
conservative ideas she held. Thus, in order to consider the original
body of published Oz books "canon," one has no choice but to invoke a
hierarchy of canon, with Baum on top. Baum left a lot of room for
exploration, but those statements and ideas that contradict his conception of
Oz have to be considered as either in error or in need of explanation.
Baum is and must remain at the top of the canonical pyramid.
The complete published books have for many years been generally referred to as the
Famous Forty. The problem with this clever designation is that it doesn't
accurately represent the number of stories that were written by the original
authors. In fact, it doesn't even count three of Baum's own works. To reconcile this
discrepancy and keep with the concept of "canon" itself, some have given these additional stories the
somewhat pejorative sobriquet, "Quasi-Canonical books," or more generously, the
"Deuterocanonical Seven," in imitation of the term used by Catholic Bibles to
refer to the additional books considered canon, so-called deutero canon,
because they were accepted later on.
The Royal Timeline of Oz presents a new, modern
view of canon that eschews the pointless limitations of the Famous Forty.
The additional Oz books by Baum, Thompson, Neill, Cosgrove-Payes or
the McGraws are not to be considered "quasi" canon, but canon
itself. While the deuterocanon is not an inappropriate term by any means, it's a designation best saved for
modern works. Reilly & Britton (later Reilly & Lee) are not the baseline for canon,
nor should they be. Such a
demarcation fails to stand up in light of actual scrutiny. Let's examine
that history briefly.
The original publisher of any Oz book
was George M. Hill. With the demise of that company, two of his employees,
Reilly & Britton started up their own company and began publishing Baum's
Oz (and non-Oz) stories. When Britton died, the company became Reilly & Lee.
When both men passed, however, a frugal and unimaginative employee named Frank O'Donnell
took over, and during his tenure managed to do as little as possible to promote new Oz books,
much to the aggravation of then-Royal Historian Ruth Plumly Thompson, who
actually stopped writing Oz books on his account. Content to ride on the
company's back catalogue, O'Donnell rarely commissioned new Oz books, and between the
years of 1942 and 1946, 1946 and 1949, and 1951 and 1963, no new titles came
forth, allowing 19 years in total to go by without an Oz book. This was
a disastrous move, particularly when one considers that the Oz series—prior to
his involvement—had been running consecutively and without interruption for 35
years (from 1907-1942)! Even Baum's death didn't stop the successful
one-Oz-book-a-year tradition! No, it took a bad businessman with no
interest in the series to do that. Were it not for the 1939 MGM
motion-picture The Wizard of Oz, the Oz books would likely have fallen into
With this in mind, the idea of "canon"
can be understood as needing a radical readjustment. No publisher, and certainly
not Reilly & Lee from the Forties onward should be considered the arbiters of what
constitutes canon. Beginning with the very basic idea that the original
authors are the legitimate "royal historians of Oz," the stories they wrote,
regardless of when they wrote it (or who published it), constitute canon, as imperfect as that canon may seemingly be.
Thanks in no small part to The
International Wizard of Oz Club, which sought out and received the legal right to publish new Oz fiction,
Oz continued, and in time older stories that hadn't been published by Reilly &
Lee were brought forth as "new" works of the original "Royal Historians,"
which are now available for fans to enjoy. Thus, even the staunchest purists
can see that the International Wizard of Oz Club is an extension of the former publishers.
Additionally, since the works of
the Royal Illustrators who become Royal Historians are
traditionally considered canon, even if those works are far out there (e.g.,
Neill's "The Wonder Book of Oz"), so too should the works of Dick Martin and Eric Shanower (who illustrated several
canonical author's works) be considered canon. And if the latter is reasonable
and true, then so too should the works that Shanower published (e.g., the two Edward Einhorn books).
As to the books of Sherwood Smith, the Baum Trust
has added them to their list of approved authors, and The Royal Timeline of Oz
sees no reason not to include them as canonical. Not counting
the Borderlands of Oz books, the
canonical books that strictly deal with Oz and events directly impacting Oz amount to 60 and
have been here dubbed The Sovereign Sixty. Together with the Borderlands of
Oz books, canon can and should be considered 75 in total, hence The Supreme Seventy-Five.
The Famous Forty
The Sovereign Sixty
The Wonderful Wizard
of Oz (a)
The Marvelous Land of
Ozma of Oz (a)
Dorothy and the
Wizard in Oz (a)
The Road to Oz (a)
The Emerald City of
The Patchwork Girl of
Tik-Tok of Oz (a)
The Scarecrow of Oz
Rinkitink in Oz (a)
The Lost Princess of
The Tin Woodman of Oz
The Magic of Oz (a)
Glinda of Oz (a)
The Royal Book of Oz
Kabumpo in Oz (b)
The Cowardly Lion of
Grampa of Oz (b)
The Lost King of Oz
The Hungry Tiger of
The Gnome King of Oz
The Giant Horse of Oz
Jack Pumpkinhead of
The Yellow Knight of
Pirates in Oz (b)
The Purple Prince of
Ojo in Oz (b)
Speedy in Oz (b)
The Wishing Horse of
Captain Salt of Oz
Handy Mandy of Oz (b)
The Silver Princes in
Ozoplaning with the
Wizard of Oz (b)
The Wonder City of Oz
Scalawagons of Oz
Lucky Bucky of Oz
The Magical Mimics in
The Shaggy Man of Oz
The Hidden Valley of
Merry-Go-Round in Oz (f)
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz
The Marvelous Land of Oz
Ozma of Oz
Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz
The Road to Oz
The Emerald City of Oz
The Patchwork Girl of Oz
Tik-Tok of Oz
The Scarecrow of Oz
Rinkitink in Oz
The Lost Princess of Oz
The Tin Woodman of Oz
The Magic of Oz
Glinda of Oz
The Royal Book of Oz
Kabumpo in Oz
The Cowardly Lion of Oz
Grampa in Oz
The Lost King of Oz
The Hungry Tiger of Oz
The Gnome King of Oz
The Giant Horse of Oz
Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz
The Yellow Knight of Oz
Pirates in Oz
The Purple Prince of Oz
Ojo in Oz
Speedy in Oz
The Wishing Horse of Oz
Captain Salt in Oz
Handy Mandy in Oz
The Silver Princess in Oz
Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz
The Wonder City of Oz (c)
The Scalawagons of Oz (c)
Lucky Bucky in Oz (c)
The Magical Mimics in Oz
The Shaggy Man of Oz
The Hidden Valley of Oz (e)
Merry Go Round in Oz (f)
Yankee in Oz
The Enchanted Island of Oz
The Forbidden Fountain of Oz (f)
The Ozmapolitan of Oz (g)
Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz
The Wogglebug Book
Little Wizard Stories of Oz
The Runaway in Oz (c)
The Wicked Witch of Oz (e)
The Rundelstone of Oz (f)
The Hidden Prince of Oz (h)
Toto of Oz (h)
The Giant Garden of Oz (i)
Adventures in Oz (i)
The Salt Sorcerer of Oz (i)
Paradox in Oz (j)
The Living House of Oz (j)
The Emerald Wand of Oz (k)
Trouble Under Oz (k)
Sky Pyrates Over Oz (k)
a. L. Frank Baum
b. Ruth Plumly Thompson
c. John R. Neill
d. Jack Snow
e. Rachel Cosgrove-Payes
f. Eloise and Lauren McGraw
g. Dick Martin
h. Gina Wickwar
i. Eric Shanower
j. Edward Einhorn
k. Sherwood Smith
To maintain some semblance of connectivity to the original Famous Forty,
the Sovereign Sixty has been redesigned to reflect the numbering system
of the Famous Forty, ignoring the chronological order in which these
books actually take place. Also, in keeping with the International
Wizard of Oz Club's publication order, as noted on the backflap of The
Hidden Valley of Oz, Thompson's later three books and Dick Martin's are
listed as #41−44. Thus, the Queer
Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz series, the Wogglebug Book
and Little Wizard Stories of Oz stories being placed at #45−47.
The Supreme Seventy-Five
These are the 15 Borderlands of Oz books:
1. (61) A New Wonderland/The Magical Monarch of Mo
2. (62) Dot and Tot of Merryland (1901)
3. (63) The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus
4. (64) The Enchanted Island of Yew (1903)
5. (65) Queen Zixi of Ix (1904)
6. (66) A Kidnapped Santa Claus (1904)
7. (67) John Dough and the Cherub (1906)
8. (68) The Twinkle Tales (includes Twinkle
and Chubbins and Policeman Bluejay, aka Babes in Birdland)
9. (69) The Sea Fairies (1911)
10. (70) Sky Island (1912)
11. (71) The Collected Short Stories of L. Frank
Baum (includes American Fairy Tales and Animal Fairy Tales)
12. (72) The Curious Cruise of Captain Santa (1926)
13. (73) King Kojo (1937)
14. (74) The Wizard of Way-Up and Other Wonders
15. (75) Sissajig and Other Surprises (2002)
These eleven Baum titles and four Thompson titles constitute canon, and are added to the Sovereign
Sixty to make up what is known as The Supreme Seventy-Five. Note,
that four of these works are collections of stories, and while the majority of
short stories can
be considered canon, not all of them necessarily are, and several are not even
the fantasy genre.
The Royal Timeline of Oz accepts the notion
of deuterocanonical works, although it uses that term to refer to
a different grouping of stories than that designated by prior Oz
scholars, such as Steven Teller.
To help readers understand the concept, "deutercanonical"
refers to a canonical work that was added in a later period of time from
when the earlier body of canon was determined. In the real world,
several deutercanonical books were added to the Catholic, Eastern
Orthodox, and Oriental Orthodox Bibles after scholars recognized that
certain Jewish religious writings from before or during the Second
period should be restored to the Hebrew canon, many of which had been
considered canonical by early Christians, but for one reason or another were not included when the
canonical list of Hebrew Scriptures was determined by the Catholic (and
later Orthodox) Church. The term is not pejorative,
nor indicative of apocryphal works, although the Protestant Church
considers them as such.
The word apocrypha designates dubious,
non-canonical works; in other words, books that are rejected as not
being true or authoritative. Although Bibles have sometimes used
this term to refer to the deuterocanonical books, it is a misnomer. "This group of books is called
'deuterocanonical' not (as some imagine) because they are a 'second
rate' or inferior canon, but because their status as being part of the
canon of Scripture was settled later in time than certain books that
always and everywhere were regarded as Scripture." (see
here for more information) Interestingly, the Ethiopic Churches have
always considered the deuterocanonical books, as well as several other
books not included amongst them (such as 1 Enoch) to be canonical, so
for them it's all one canon.
When Oz scholars first determined the canon
of Oz literature in the 1950s, they settled on forty books, which became known as the
Famous Forty. As noted in the article above, "Defining Canon,"
the facts bear out that this is an inaccurate designation, and embraces
a wider and
more appropriate designation of canon. Thus, it includes those
works that had originally
Deuterocanonical as part of the Sovereign Sixty. For the purposes
of the Royal Timeline of Oz, the term "deuterocanon" has been repurposed to
designate modern works that don't
fall into the original enclosure of canon, but which establish important
aspects of Oz history that are rightly considered canon.
This new deuterocanon is by its nature subjective,
and it must be noted that the purpose of this category is not to
elevate one work above another, but to highlight those books which
address significant matters of Oz history and continuity, and which do so in a
way that reflects Baum's overriding mythology, or which deal with
matters that the canonical books alluded
to, confused, or neglected altogether. As this is an ever growing
category, it seems pointless to settle on a number. Currently,
together with the Supreme Seventy-Five, there are
as of this writing, 90 total canonical works.
As with the canonical books, some of the
elements in these books might require closer examination or even retcons to
address matters that don't seem quite right. Oz is and should
remain a mysterious land, however, for those looking to address seeming
incongruities, continuity notes are included in each of the titles in
Rosine and the Laughing Dragon of Oz (a)
The Blue Emperor of Oz (b)
The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz (c)
Oz and the Three Witches (d)
The Gardener's Boy of Oz (e)
The Hollyhock Dolls of Oz (e)
The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1:
The Disenchanted Princess of Oz (f)
The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 2:
Tippetarius in Oz (f)
The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 3:
Zim Greenleaf of Oz (f)
The Royal Explorers of Oz: Book 1: The
Voyage of the Crescent Moon (g)
The Royal Explorers of Oz: Book 2: The
Crescent Moon Over Tarara (g)
The Royal Explorers of Oz: Book 3: Terra
The Witch Queen of Oz (h)
The Law of Oz and Other Stories (i)
The Magic Umbrella of Oz (i)
a. Frank Baum
b. Henry Blossom
c. Jim Nitch (as Onyx Madden)
d. Hugh Pendexter III
e. Phyllis Ann Karr
f. Melody Grandy
g. Marcus Mebes, Jeff Rester & Jared Davis
h. Philip John Lewin
i. Paul Dana
Dating the Early Oz Books
One of the most challenging periods of
time for a chronologer of Ozian lore to chronicle may be the earliest stories,
starting with The
Wonderful Wizard of Oz. L. Frank Baum offered very little
information as to when his stories takes place, though there is at least one
cardinal dates that he goes on to establish. Unlike the classic fairy tales,
in which the tenets of journalism, the famous W’s of Who, What,
Where, When, and Why, are irrelevant, Baum established his Oz stories as the history of an otherworld connected to our world.
Unlike the MGM film, Oz is real, not a dream. Thus, it's rather
appropriate, considering that Baum designated himself the Royal Historian of Oz,
that modern scholarship, such as found in The Royal Timeline of Oz, the
International Wizard of Oz Club and other fan-circles, examine the chronology
of this history. Although Baum never lived long enough to clarify certain questions and mysteries, a century later, fans and authors
have figured a few things out, and, with some diligence, we can put together a relatively accurate chronology for the
Where some early chronologers placed the books in or just
before the year of publication—a
one-book-a-year precedent following Ozma of Oz—internal evidence
points to the fact that not a long span of
time occurs between the early books, particularly following the second book (The
Land of Oz). Additionally, Baum's successor Ruth Plumly Thompson appears
to eschew this idea entirely (for more information on this, see
Thompson and the New Chronology).
1) Following the general rule above (see
Appendix A 1), The Royal Timeline of Oz
first book (The
Wizard of Oz) in the latter part of 1898. It may
have occurred in the latter part of 1899, and 1897 is not unlikely either. A case has been
made by author Robin Hess for it taking place in 1893 (or 1895). There are, however, serious
arguments against that, not the least of which is that Baum himself told readers
that only a "few years" had passed since the events of the first book.
Then, there's the issue of Dorothy's age. While she's certainly older
when we see her again in Ozma of Oz, she's certainly not seventeen
(which is what she'd be if she was seven in 1893).
2) The events
in W.W. Denslow’s newspaper strip, "Dorothy’s Christmas Tree,"
that Dorothy spent Christmas in Oz, establishes when approximately the events
of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz occurred. This accords with Baum's
view, which notes that her second
house was well under construction by the time she returned. The
Day-to-Day Chronology of Oz indicates that Dorothy was
in Oz for 52 days, which with the information from the story above, reveals
that this was from November 12, 1989 to January 2, 1899. (See
here for more
3) The date of the events chronicled in Baum's newspaper strip stories, Queer
Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz
Royal Proclamation, signed by Ozma, as in the "second year of Ozma's
stories are explicitly dated to the month and year of
the newspaper they first appeared in, specifically late August and September
1904, which is confirmed by the fact that the Ozian visitors are said to have first arrived in
the United States in late August 1904.
say that this indicates a later date for The Marvelous Land of
Oz, except for an additional bit of information that Baum gave readers.
His 1904 Ozmapolitan (an in-universe newspaper) lists the year 1904 as the
"THIRD period, reign of Ozma," with a "period" established as meaning a
year. Rather than a contradiction, Baum may have considered the common interregnum period for rulers in which there is a
span of time between the time a ruler is appointed king or queen, and the
coronation, which represents the official inauguration. These two
indications when considered together indicate a cardinal date for the year of
The Marvelous Land of Oz. Ozma is
Princess-Designate, or Princess-in-waiting (which is akin to President-Elect)
in 1901 when she's first disenchanted at the end of the latter book, and although she is regarded as the rightful
ruler, she remains Princess Designate until her inauguration (as indicated in
the 1965 Ozmapolitan as taking place in July) of 1902. Thus, the periods
designated in the 1902 Ozmapolitan can be understood as the following:
the FIRST period is Ozma's inauguration, which begins in July 1902; the SECOND period
is 1903. The THIRD period covers the events of the Queer Visitors strip
The first year
of Ozma's reign runs from July 1902 to July 1903. The second year runs
from July 1903 to July 1904, and is when Ozma issues her Royal Proclamation.
With this information, a much more accurate
chronology can be ascertained for later stories.
5) It was initially believed that
Ozma of Oz
must occur when Dorothy is out of school and able to take a
vacation with Uncle Henry to Australia, but evidence shows this is not the
case. Dorothy does not return to Kansas
until after the events of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, so these books
take place in rapid succession, with only a short time in between them.
This was not a vacation, however, but a trip taken on behalf of her uncle's
failing health. There are only two times in the year such a trip might
have been made, the summer (June to September) or the winter (January to
April). The latter is indicated by the burial dates of
Jack Pumpkinhead's spoiled heads in
The Road to Oz, another clue
Baum left which gives
chronological evidence that there is a year and ten months between the time of
The Marvelous Land of Oz and
The Road to Oz. See the
continuity notes for more details.
Dorothy was away for over three months It
is uncertain exactly how long she'd been in the ship before the storm overtook her, though
ship-journeys at that time would have taken around two months, give or take a
week based on the ship. The events of Ozma of
Oz take place over the course of a week (see the
Oz Chronology), after which
Dorothy stays in the Emerald City another "few weeks" until she decides to
leave, so about three weeks and a month
pass in Oz before Dorothy decides to go to Australia. As per David Hulan's calculations based on
the type of ship they'd traveled, and noted in Eureka in Oz, the
journey from Kansas to Australia took Henry over two months.
The best time for a farmer to get away (and Uncle
Henry doesn't have a lot of animals, so his operation is small enough for Aunt Em and
"the hired men" to do the important tasks) is in the winter, and most likely
after the holidays (which he'd want to spend with Em since he wouldn't be
seeing her for some time). This also is the ideal time to travel as the
fares would be lower after the holidays.
The first month (onboard the ship) heading to
Australia would begin in mid-January. We know that when she checks the
Magic Picture, weeks later, Henry is settled in Australia, which indicates
that she was aboard the ship almost to the end of its voyage, and arrived in
Ev in early March. The events of Ozma of Oz take place over the
course of a week, but it is said that Dorothy spends "several weeks" in Oz.
So, she likely goes to her uncle in Sydney, Australia at the end of March,
where she spends five days. She adopts Eureka, and they take the trip to San Francisco, which was likely
a three-week trip. Dorothy notes (in Eureka
in Oz) that it's a much faster steamer ship and more expensive, and likely
took around 23 or so days, even with the stopover at Honolulu (see
Transpacific Steam: The Story of Steam Navigation from the Pacific Coast of
North America to the Far East and the Antipodes, 1867-1941, by E. Mowbray
Tate; Corwall Books, 1986). She then spent another week at her friend
Polly's house in San Francisco before she boards the train to meet with her
uncle at Bill Hugson's farm,
bringing her to the end of April.
Ozma of Oz,
Dorothy says she's never heard of Ozma before. So, this story must be set
prior to the
Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz newspaper strips, as the official
proclamation and the Ozmapolitan make it clear that Dorothy's plea to
Ozma was the reason Ozma allowed the Scarecrow and others visit the U.S. in the
first place. Queer Visitors has to be after the events of that book, and, in
fact, Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, which takes place shortly after
(and before Dorothy returns to Kansas).
There are retcons needed for this arrangement to work. In "Dorothy's Letter" (which
has greetings to Ozma), reprinted in the first issue of the Ozmapolitan,
Dorothy that she's looking
forward to seeing the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman again, and meeting the Wogglebug, Jack
Pumpkinhead and Sawhorse.
That meeting (of the latter two) occurred in Ozma of Oz, and the former
in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz (earlier, actually, as Dorothy spent a
"few weeks" in Oz, and The Enchanted Apples of Oz shows that they're in
the same room). A retcon has to be twofold, because in the
Queer Visitors strip, Jack asks who Dorothy and Toto are. Yet, Jack
met Dorothy at the end of Ozma of Oz. That fix comes from Baum
himself who says that Jack's head was "overripe" at the time, so the reader can simply
say that Jack momentarily forgot (he had also just been knocked over).
The second fix is more elaborate as it involves saying that there was a
printing error (or editorial emendation) in the letter in the Ozmapolitan,
so that instead of "I know I would love Jack Pumpkinhead and his Sawhorse," it
originally had to have read "I know I love Jack Pumpkinhead and his Sawhorse." That
still leaves the problem of the Wogglebug. For these reasons, some may
choose to view Dorothy's letter as apocryphal, but seeing as it was recorded
by Baum, I'd argue for a plausible retcon.
As to the visit itself, it must have been while Aunt Em
and Uncle Henry were away (at the bank, getting supplies, etc.) as they
won't believe in the existence of Oz until they arrive there in The Emerald
City of Oz. Late summer is indicated for the visit of several Ozian personalities to the North
American continent, a visit that lasted late August 1904 to until early January 1905.
6) This next one is easier...
Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz
must occur a short time after
Ozma of Oz
because Dorothy has just departed with Uncle Henry from Australia for
California on their way back to Kansas. Baum says dawn was breaking as the train pulled
in at 5 AM. This only happens in California twice a year, in April, and
again in early September. For the reasons noted above, April fits best
regards the issue of the earthquake, some like to equate it with the San
Francisco quake of 1906. While that might seem feasible, there are some noteworthy variances with the real-world
account and the one detailed in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz. The earthquake that
swallows Dorothy and magically transports her to the underworld of the
Nonestican continent appears to have been a different and earlier one.
also would be a good place to discuss the matter of the change in instructions
given to Dorothy from Ozma. At the end of
Ozma of Oz, Ozma tells Dorothy that she will check in on
her every Saturday morning, and if Dorothy makes a certain sign, Ozma
will transport her back to Oz. However, in
Dorothy and the Wizard in
instructions are changed and Dorothy says that Ozma checks in on her every day
It's possible that while Dorothy was
in Australia with Uncle Henry, she paid an untold visit to Ozma one Saturday
morning, after which Ozma changed the instructions.
Another answer to this solution might be that Ozma gave Dorothy both
instructions. She would check in on her every day at 4:00 (which
would allow time for Dorothy to have returned home from school) and every Saturday
morning. Incidentally, Dorothy Haas, author of two Random House Oz books
and the Seven Leaf Clover and
Dorothy and Old King Crow),
appears to have deemed this the case as she utilizes both circumstances
for each of her books.
7) It seems unlikely that Ozma would have
celebrated her first birthday without Dorothy, but there is good reason to place Dorothy's
next return to Oz—The Road to Oz—in the following year to celebrate Ozma’s
birthday on August 21st, 1903. It's possible that Ozma didn't celebrate her birthday until
that year. In any case, Baum's chronology of Jack's heads demonstrates
how long a span of time has occurred from The Marvelous Land of Oz to
The Road to Oz, which is a year and ten months.
8) With Dorothy’s final visit to Oz in
Emerald City of Oz,
she becomes a permanent resident. Regarding her age, there is nothing
but indirect and inconclusive evidence. Based on her characterization
and adventures, it has been argued that Dorothy would have been no younger than
six in the first book, which ends in early 1900. Later, we learn that
she is younger than Ozma and between the ages of Trot and Betsy Bobbin, and
likely no older than twelve or thirteen. If Jack Snow's account "Murder
in Oz" can be dated to the time it was written, purportedly 1955, then Dorothy
would have been technically "sixty-three" in that year, indicating that she was born in
1892 and stopped aging in The Emerald City of Oz when she made Oz her
9) Chronology does not get easier after this point.
Two of Baum's Oz stories were originally composed earlier for different
formats, e.g., Tik-Tok of Oz was based on the 1909 stage production
The Tik-Tok Man of Oz. Additionally, Rinkitink in Oz was
originally the 1905 story
King Rinkitink, with very little changed in the story, save for
tacking on Oz characters at the end (which is currently being rectified by the
King Rinkitink contest, which is restoring some of Baum's original
conceptions). Because of this, Rinkitink in Oz is necessarily moved to
1905 and every story that precedes it to 1905 as well. This makes for a
crowded year. However, once Trot is removed from the latter (as King
Rinkitink did not have Trot in the story), then stories like The Scarecrow
in Oz and others can take place after it.
Thompson and the New Chronology:
Ruth Plumly Thompson utilized an intricate
chronology that eschews the idea that events in her stories
accord with the publication dates (this was true of Baum's stories, as well,
though his chronology—absent of dates and years—is far less explicit), which means that any accurate
timeline of her stories has to discard the general rule that's been commonly employed,
dates the Oz books in accordance with the year of publication (generally by
placing it a year earlier, as I had
originally done). To distinguish this system from this
traditional chronology, I've dubbed it the New Chronology.
Most of these dates are based around the internal
chronology present in
Giant Horse of Oz, which predicates the need
for a certain date that has to be coordinated with
The Marvelous Land of Oz.
The dates are also much earlier than their publication dates, as they follow
on this book's evidence as well as the necessary restructuring of Baum's books, which take place much earlier
than their publication dates due to the fact that two of them were written
much earlier (Tik-Tok of Oz
in 1909 and Rinkitink in Oz
Kabumpo in Oz gives an explicit starting
date of two years from the time of
The Magic of Oz (which is based
on how long the Nome King has been living underneath the palace).
The Yellow Knight of Oz gives us a span of years for
The Royal Book of Oz,
as Tuzzle of Samandra says the Comfortable Camel was missing for "ten
long years." As the Royal Book must be placed in 1910 due to
Thompson's chronology in
Giant Horse of Oz, this gives us a 1920
date. Note that the reference to
Lindy (Charles Lindbergh), who was
made famous when he made a nonstop flight from Long Island to Paris
in 1927, is made by the author who wrote the book in 1929, and not by a
The Lost King of Oz is
dated two years prior to
Giant Horse of Oz.
Thompson's eighth Oz book,
Giant Horse of Oz presents an internal chronology that necessitates the
placement of her first seven books much earlier, and the condensing of some of
these stories to within a year, as this story can
take place no later than 1912 due to Orin's chronology (see
that entry for more
details), which dictates Mombi being deposed by the Good Witch of the North
twenty years prior, but before the Wizard handed Tip over to her. In
Pumpkinhead of Oz, it is stated that Tip lived with Mombi for nine years
prior to being disenchanted. As that takes place in 1901, we can deduce
that Ozma/Tip came to Mombi in 1892. This is the latest year in which
Mombi can have been defeated by Orin, the Good Witch of the North, and kicked out of
her hut, otherwise, the Good Witch would have discovered Tip living with Mombi
when she surprised her. 20
years from 1892 brings us to 1912 as the year in which
Giant Horse of Oz takes place. This dating helps establish a cardinal date around
which other stories can be set.
In The Gnome King of Oz, Ruggedo
explicitly states that it's been five years since he was left exiled and
stranded at the end of Kabumpo in Oz. As that story is dated at 1910, this gives
The Gnome King of Oz a date of 1915, which places it out
of publication date order, but safely within the chronology of the ongoing
Pumpkinhead of Oz, protagonist Peter Brown
that two years have passed since the events of
The Gnome King of Oz (page 19 in the hardcover, page 3 in the Del Rey softcover), his first
time in Oz. Peter's age is nine when he first visits Oz (in
The Gnome King of Oz),
and is 11 in Jack
Pumpkinhead of Oz. That places this book in 1917.
Pirates in Oz has
contradictory dating, as the text notes that it's been five years
since Peter Brown silenced Ruggedo (at the end of
The Gnome King of Oz),
yet Peter himself states that he's only 11, placing the events of this book two
The Gnome King of Oz,
but after Jack
Pumpkinhead of Oz (as the events of that story are
referenced). The Royal Timeline of Oz gives precedence to the characters
own words and views the other date as an authorial/editorial error.
The Purple Prince of Oz
has no indication of year, save that it must take place over a
year after the events of
Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz. Because the
events of The Wishing Horse of Oz and
The Silver Princess in Oz
must take place at a certain date, and this book is established as taking
place six years prior to the latter, its 1920 date is based on these.
This also places it out of publication order, but as with
The Gnome King of Oz, it is still safely within the parameters of the ongoing narrative in
Speedy in Oz is set at
over two years after the events of
The Yellow Knight of Oz (When Speedy
returns home, his uncle is already building a second rocket-ship; in
Speedy in Oz, it's said that he'd worked on it for two years and stopped just
prior to their vacation in Yellowstone, from where Speedy returns to Oz
again), which places it in 1921.
Captain Salt in Oz is set
a few days short of four years after the events of
Pirates in Oz, giving it an
explicit date of summer 1921. It is also out of publication order,
necessarily so, as Thompson indicates that the events of
The Wishing Horse of Oz must take place afterwards.
The Wishing Horse of Oz
tells the story of the anniversary celebration of either the Wizard's or
Dorothy's "discovery" of Oz, celebrating either his 50th year or Dorothy's
25th. As evidence appears to favor the latter, it is set in 1923.
Prince Randy, the protagonist of
The Purple Prince of Oz
states that he's ten years old in that book.
When he returns in
The Silver Princess in Oz, he's sixteen.
The Silver Princess in Oz is dated to three years after the events of
The Wishing Horse of Oz, establishing a 1926 date for Silver Princess,
and a 1920 date for The Purple Prince of Oz.
Ozoplaning with the
Wizard in Oz, in which
Dorothy's very first trip to Oz is celebrated, can be dated to 1933, the 35th
anniversary of Dorothy's journey to Oz, based on the Guardian of the Gate's
declaration that he's not abandoned his post in 40 years. The Emerald
City was first established in 1892, 41 years prior (see the notes for
Oz and the Three Witches.)
Although published earlier than
the Wizard in Oz, Handy Mandy's cardinal year of 1935 was established in the
The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1: The Disenchanted Princess in Oz.
1909 The Royal Book of Oz
1910 Kabumpo in Oz
1910 Grampa in Oz
1910 The Lost King of Oz
1911 The Hungry Tiger of Oz
1912 The Cowardly Lion of Oz
1912 The Giant Horse of Oz
1915 The Gnome King of Oz
1917 Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz
1917 Pirates in Oz
1919 The Yellow Knight of Oz
1920 The Purple Prince of Oz
1920 Ojo in Oz
1921 Speedy in Oz
1921 Captain Salt in Oz
1923 The Wishing Horse of Oz
1926 The Silver Princess in Oz
1933 Ozoplaning with the Wizard
1935 Handy Mandy in Oz
The Ban on
The ban on practicing magic has been a
progressive effort on the part of Ozma, anxious to protect her citizens from
the harmful effects that might result even from the accidental use of magic.
Over a period of 87 years, Oz has gone from the hard-line stance, prohibiting
all magic, except that of Ozma, Glinda and the Wizard (also the Good Witch of
the North) to a liberal stance that allows all but the misuse of magic for
evil ends, or even just for frivolous matters.
The following timeline shows the primary four
stories that establishes a change in the law regarding the use of magic,
allowing the reader a better understanding of Ozma's progressive nature, as
well as a means of dating stories based on the current status of the law in
1905: Prior to The Patchwork Girl of Oz, Ozma
bans the practice of magic in Oz, fearful that its use will result in disaster
and harm for Oz and its citizens. Only Glinda, the Wizard and herself are
excluded. While not a magic-practitioner, Dorothy is allowed to use the
Magic Belt. The
Hollyhock Dolls of Oz reveals that The Good Witch of the North goes into
retirement until Ozma gives her an exemption, and urges her out of retirement
later in the year. Ozma agrees to look into the law, recognizing that it
is restrictive, but nothing further comes of this until about sixty years later.
1964: Paul Dana's
The Law of Oz and Other Stories
pictures the end of the absolutist approach, the one in which only Ozma,
Glinda and the Wizard can practice any kind of magic. From this point forward,
Ozma allows the Yookoohoos to behave in the way that is natural to their beings.
Despite this exception, the law stands that Ozma, Glinda
and the Wizard are the sole practitioners of magic.
1982: Melody Grandy's
Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 2 marks the next step, as Ozma allows
individuals to petition for a license to practice magic in Oz. This makes way
for Maggie, the next Good Witch of the North, Zim the Flying Sorcerer and others
to practice magic legally.
1999: Finally, Edward Einhorn's
The Living House of
Oz brings the law into sharp focus as Mordra, a witch from a parallel
Oziverse, is put on trial for practicing magic, an event that ends up seeing the
law itself tried and removed. From this point forward, the ban on the practice of
magic is lifted, but the misuse of magic is instead banned, which includes
frivolous and trivial uses of magic.
History of the Phanfasms
Image by Jaun Raza, from The Magic Umbrella of Oz
Long before man, the Erbs came to
be. A cruel and violent race of evil spirits, they resent the Immortals and
mortals who came to inhabit the Earth, believing that it belonged to
them. The Erbs, later known as the Mimics due to their shapeshifting
abilities, were imprisoned within Mount Illuso (The Emerald City of Oz; The Magical Mimics of Oz; The Ancient Dawn
of Oz (coming soon))—Prehistory
The evil fairy Enilrul curses Oz, a spell that
her sister Lurline
changes. The deserts become deadly—1227 (The Witch Queen of Oz)
From around the world, mischievous
children are lured by a being called the Piper,
who has been possessed by the power of the Pan-Pipes (The Law of Oz, The
Magic Umbrella of Oz), one of several enchanted objects left behind
by the Mimics for this very purpose
(The Ancient Dawn of Oz (coming soon)). A group of artists are
also lured to Mt. Phantastico (The Living House of Oz). In exchange for immense power, they
the Phanfasms, and are mysteriously drawn to Mt. Phantastico, nearby to Mt.
to build a civilization that will one day conquer the surrounding fairylands
and release the curse upon the Mimics.
(The Law of Oz, The Magic Umbrella of Oz)—Several thousand years in
Gehanus Maledictus, the very first First and Foremost Phanfasm
is betrayed by his inner council and led to the desert of Ama in the
continent of Tarara, where he is buried alive with a ring of power
granted him by the Piper. Polimodellano, who was led to "discover" Mt. Phantastico,
takes his place as First and Foremost. (The Royal Explorers of Oz
Lurline enchants Oz and the fairy Ozana is
guard Mt. Illuso and ensure that the Mimics can never leave the mountain. (Magical Mimics of Oz)—1742
The Phanfasms team up with the Nomes to enter Oz
from the underground, though their real plan is to destroy the Nomes, their
allies, and all of Oz. (The Emerald City of Oz)—1905
They are repelled and forced to drink of
the Waters of Oblivion which takes away their memory. (The Emerald City
To take advantage of their memory loss, a good fairy sends an emissary, Fionna
Freckles, a former doll come to life, to rule and cultivate good traits
among the Phanfasms. She is joined by Mordra, a witch from a parallel
Oz, who along with her husband Phanfarillo—the son of the prior First and
Foremost—aids in this endeavor. This works for a time as the old leaders are deposed
and a new civilization is built up of Phanfasms who use their powers for
creative (rather than destructive) endeavors. (Fionna Freckles, the
First and Foremost, The Living House of Oz)— 1907
Time passes and the wicked thoughts and
ways of the Phanfasms begin to reassert itself, particularly for those in
power led by the former First and Foremost—(possibly around 1944)
Fionna departs, and in her absence, the former First and Foremost turns to evil once again
(lured back by another Phanfasm or a Mimic that had come to
Oz in 1944), and with him the old guard return and bully themselves back into power. Any Phanfasm
who will not resume their former ways is killed or imprisoned. Phanfarillo is imprisoned and then transformed. During this period Mordra becomes pregnant with
Buddy and returns to Oz. (The Living House of Oz)
The Phanfasms fight amongst themselves, leading to a civil war which destroys much of their former civilization.
The survivors are destroyed or depart, and with that, the power of the Piper
is diminished. (The Law of Oz, The Magic Umbrella of Oz, and untold story)— 1963
Jandilay, an outcast from the start, is
the last remaining Phanfasm on Mt. Phantastico, and believes himself the last of the Phanfasms. He aids Button Bright in learning his true heritage
and ceases being a Phanfasm, leaving the Piper bereft, and in search of new
prey. Allied with Mrs. Yoop, he attempts to escape to the Outside
World. (The Law of Oz, The Magic Umbrella of
The remnant of good Phanfasms who had earlier been
saved by Ozana and Fionna, and given back their hearts, return in
great numbers and begin to rebuild Mt. Phantastico so that it becomes an
even more beautiful city than before. (The Living House of Oz) The evil Phanfasms, however, have entered Mt. Illuso,
where they learn their part in the
larger Erb plot against the fairylands. (The Ancient Dawn of Oz (coming
When Ruggedo, Bungle and two children enter Mt.
Phantastico, the Phanfasm remnant pretend to be frightening in order to
scare the untrustworthy Nome away, and when Bungle asks the First and
Foremost to send them away, he gladly obliges. (Ruggedo in Oz)
Polimodellano, who earlier departed Mt.
Phantastico for Ama to await the inevitable appearance of the ring, at
last gains his quarry when Samuel Salt and Dorcas of Ogowan uncover the
tomb of Gehanus Maledictus. Disguised as a parrot, he steals the
ring from Captain Salt. (The Royal Explorers of Oz quadrilogy)—1995
Under the command of Polimodellano, the
First and Foremost, the evil Phanfasms depart Mt. Illuso.
(The Phantasms of Oz, forthcoming))—1995
Led by him, the Phanfasms
head back to the rebuilt city in Mt. Phantastico and wrest back control. The
reformed Phanfasms don't fight back this time, but don't follow the First
and Foremost either, and are thus imprisoned. Evil Phanfasms begin to
steal precious gems and diamonds from other places, redecorating Mt. Phantastico with them. (The Living House of Oz)—1998
Phanfasms attempt to
conquer the Nome Kingdom during the time Rik is temporarily king. Their
attempt is thwarted by Kaliko. (Trouble
Mordra returns to Mt. Phantastico where the
First and Foremost makes her a ruthless deal. (The Living House of Oz)—1999
The Phanfasms invade the Emerald City. Buddy's origin is exposed, his father
disenchanted, and the First and Foremost and the invading Phanfasm army is
sent back to Mt. Phantastico. (The Living House of Oz)—1999
The History of
Ruggedo and the Nomes/Gnomes
Following the end of Reilly & Lee's stewardship of
the Oz books, the history of Ruggedo often gets confusing due to the fact that
the he's brought back in a number of later stories. The Royal Timeline of Oz has
sought to correct this by cobbling together a history of stories
that can be made to fit as a narrative within the overall chronology as defined on
the Mainline Timeline,
but this remains a work in progress.
Those stories which don't appear to fit are found in the
Parallel Histories section.
the Nome is born (as per a literal understanding of the statement in Pirates
in Oz that Ruggedo is a thousand years old) to two warring
underground fairy races, a Thill princess named Yanoh and a Ghorn prince
named Cavernonko Yetsan, the latter whom corrupts Roquat (The
Mysterious Chronicles of Oz and Ruggedo
in Oz). Once in power, Roquat deals with another pair of
warring races in (or near) his domain, the goblins and trolls,
transforming them into Nomes. The reigning Gnome King at this time might
be Goldemar (from Zauberlinda
the Wise Witch), or his son, Prince Kuno. (And in the 1907
story The Jewelled Toad, by Isabella Johnstone and illustrated by
W.W. Denslow, there is an unnamed Fire King of Gnomeland.) How this
plays out with Roquat in the coming years is a story yet untold. As an
offspring of a Thill and Ghorn, Ruggedo and the transformed goblins and
trolls may explain the distinction between Nomes and Gnomes.
Additionally, there are several Nome/Gnome offshoots that readers are
introduced to in Oz.
There are the "gnomes" of The
Wonder City of Oz, who are unlike Baum (or Thompson's) Nomes,
but may be an offshoot; The Rock Nomes of The
Witch Queen of Oz, who were cursed by Enilrul, but whose
origins appear to have been gnomish;
The Tree Nomes of "Jimmy Bulber
in Oz," in Oziana
1974, who are akin to the Rock Nomes;
Panners, of The
Hidden Prince of Oz, who are Gnomes/Nomes who get their gold
from creeks instead of the ground;
The Delves of Queen Delva from The
Purple Prince of Oz, who are identified in "A
Princess in Oz" as rock fairies related to gnomes, who dig for
The kindhearted Knarls, who are
gardeners and distant cousins of Nomes, from Margaret Berg's The
Reading Tree of Oz.
Fire Fairies, introduced in Bucketheads
in Oz, which are female Nomes who tend the furnaces and
prepare meals. They are different from the Nomewives, who look like
their male counterparts and purportedly perform other wifely duties.
The Enchanted Gnome of Oz reveals that
indeed Goblins are cousins of Gnomes.
1893: Ruggedo plots his first Oz invasion,
targeting Glinda. A local Quadling sorceress, Hermoza, overhears the
plot and informs Glinda, who turns Ruggedo and his Nomes into lizards.
(Noted in Cory in Oz)
1900: Ruggedo somehow escapes escapes his
lizard enchantment and curses Hermoza and her family. (Cory in Oz)
1902: Ozma of Oz: It all begins when
Roquat the Nome King imprisons the Royal Family of Ev, who Ozma seeks to
restore. Ozma is successful, thanks to Billina and her eggs, which Nomes
fear, and Dorothy takes his Magic Belt, which causes no small amount of
consternation for old Roquat.
1905: The Emerald City of Oz: The
Nome King Roquat's first invasion attempt of Oz calls together the
forces of Whimsies, Growlywogs and the evil Phanfasms, who tunnel under
Oz to attack the Emerald City unawares. Roquat's efforts end with him
losing his memories after drinking water from the Fountain of Oblivion for
the first time.
1905: "Evrob and the Nomes" (Oziana 2004):
After Prince Evrob decides to stay with the Nomes, Dorothy who
misunderstands the Great Book of Records heads to the Nome Kingdom to
rescue him, and inadvertently reminds the Nome King that he once had a
Magic Belt. The change to the name Ruggedo is here for the first time
1905: "Mission Impozible: The Emerald
Grasshopper" (Oziana 1991): In order to make peace between the
kingdoms, Ozma plans a surprise birthday party for the Nome King, which
doesn't quite go as planned.
1905: "Tik-Tok and the Nome King of Oz" (Little
Wizard Stories of Oz): Now on "peaceful" terms, the Wizard sends
Tik-Tok to the Nome King to get his parts repaired. The Nome King, in a
rage, breaks Tik-Tok, but repents it, ordering him thrown away. After
Kaliko repairs him in secret, the Nome King thinks he's a ghost come to
1905: "Ruggedo and the School of Magic":
Ruggedo, angered still by the loss of his Belt, embarks upon a course of
magic at the Evian University of Magic, where the Wizard of Oz is also
1905: King Rinkitink (Based on the
original idea that led to Rinkitink in Oz: Ruggedo is still the Nome
1905: Tik-Tok of Oz: Betsy, Hank, the
Shaggy Man, Ozga, Polychrome, Queen and her army descend into the Nome
King's caverns to rescue the Shaggy Man's brother taken captive by the
Nome King, now named Ruggedo. He sends them through the Hollow Tube to
the Land of An where the dragon Quox takes them back with orders from
Tititi-Hoochoo, exiling Ruggedo from his underground realm, and robbing
him of his magic. Kaliko is made Nome King in his place, but he allows
Ruggedo back underground with the promise that he'll behave himself.
1908: The Witch Queen of Oz: Ruggedo
and Kaliko play chess in Ruggedo's private apartment.
1908: "Alliance of the Elementals": Bored
and ever resentful at his fall from grace, Ruggedo summons a fire
elemental to wreak havoc on the peace talks between the Ozites and Nomes,
ending in his being banished from the dominion of the Nomes.
1908: The Magic of Oz: The former
metal monarch is wandering Ev when he meets Kiki Aru, who has powerful
magic. The two transform into animal forms in an attempt to stir up
rebellion in the Forest of Gugu against Oz. When the Wizard arrives,
however, Kiki panics, leading to their eventual capture. Ozma makes
Ruggedo drink a cup of water from the Waters of Oblivion (this is the
second time he does so) and has him settle in Oz.
1908: "Much Ado About Kiki Aru": A week
after Ruggedo drinks from the Waters of Oblivion, he meets Wag, and soon
begins to get his memory back and plot revenge. It can be assumed that
the single cup of water was not enough, or that Wag jogged his memory.
1910: Kabumpo in Oz: Living
underneath the palace two years after the events of The Magic of Oz,
Ruggedo recalls his former history, and discovers a box of mixed magic
that grows him into a giant so large he carries the palace on his head.
After being shrunk, he's exiled to Runaway Island.
1915: The Gnome King of Oz: Peter
Brown frees Ruggedo from Runaway Island, after which he attempts to
conquer Oz again. Peter hits him with the Silence Stone, and Ruggedo
again drinks the Water of Oblivion. This represents the third time he's
1917: Pirates in Oz: Two years later,
in the Kingdom of Menankypoo, the effects of the Silence Stone are
removed, and Ruggedo (who has his memory back), Clocker, and the titular
pirates attempt to conquer Oz. This time he's turned into a stone water
1935: Handy Mandy of Oz: The Wizard
Wutz breaks Ruggedo's enchantment and the two attempt to take over Oz.
Himself the Elf turns the Nome King, Ruggedo (and the Wizard Wutz) into
1935: "Sherlock Holmes in Oz": When Kaliko
grows frustrated with ruling, he longs to have Ruggedo back on the
throne, and Ozma grants his wish, allowing him to bring the cactus back
to the Nome Kingdom. It doesn't last.
Ruggedo appears to have returned to the Emerald
City in the form of a cactus
1943: Raggedys in Oz: The cactus form
of Ruggedo is disenchanted by Percy the Rat. Ak the Immortal later
sends Ruggedo back to the Nome Kingdom with a stern warning.
1944: A Refugee in Oz: Ruggedo
returns to the Nome Kingdom, where feigning remorse, Kaliko lets him
settle in. Soon enough he recruits Guph and an army of Nomes to his
side, transforming Kaliko into an ornament and taking back the throne.
Ruggedo is at his cruelest here, as he not only abducts the Madou
people, but attempts to destroy the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman. Upon
defeat, Ruggedo is walled in with eggs by order of Kaliko. How he
escapes is unknown, but he was eventually returned to his cactus state,
possibly by Ozma who wouldn't have wanted even him to remain in a state
1944: The Medicine Man of Oz: Ruggedo
is disenchanted from his cactus form by Captain Bluster of Windairy.
With the Wizard's stolen wishing pills, Ruggedo proceeds to get back the
Magic Belt and use it take over Oz. Herby the titular Medicine Man puts
in motion a plan to turn him into liquid, bottling him until Ozma pours
him out unto the ground.
Ruggedo appears to have re-formed and reconstituted
underground where he is turned back into a cactus.
1984: The Enchanted Gnome of Oz:
Ruggedo's cactus has been making noise for 40 years and driving the
Goblin King, who lives underground, crazy. To alleviate his suffering,
two Goblin children steal the cactus and bring it to him, but the Black
Goblin, the Mischief Magician, recognizes it's Ruggedo and disenchants
him. Ruggedo is frozen in ice and sent to Igloo City in Ev as an ice
1984: In an untold tale, Ruggedo thaws out;
Kaliko will not let him in the Nome Kingdom, so Ozma makes him a
wanderer in Ev. (Cory in Oz)
1984: Ruggedo deceives Thirsty Towell the
Third, a million-airdale, who gives the nome a small fortune to import
giraffes with which to build a dog park in Oz. ("Dorothy and the Great
Mystery," from The Emerald City Mirror #16)
1992: The Emerald City Mirror: With
the money Ruggedo tricked out of Thirsty, he
usurps Kaliko's throne and takes his armies to invades Oz yet again.
He's soon defeated, however. In the story "How
I Spent My Winter Invasion," Eureka discovers the original Roquat,
who was trapped in an unused portion of Ozma's Palace for years! While
he gets training on how to be good, his brother Ruggedo, who explains
how he was away during the invasion and then made king when he returned,
is put under palace arrest. This discovery explains some of the
seemingly conflicting stories that come about in the following years,
and allows them to occur, as there are now two former Nome Kings, and
the Roquat/Ruggedo names, despite belonging to two different brothers,
becomes interchangeable due to the fact that Ruggedo was thought to be
Roquat, while Roquat would later be referred to as Ruggedo.
1992: Outsiders From Oz: Back in Ev,
the former Nome King returns to the Nome Kingdom. It appears that he was either made
to again drink of the Fountain of Oblivion or he lost his memory from
the prior story because he's unaware of who or what he is when found by
Ozma wandering in an underground tunnel he helped Scowleyow dig. His
kind side is on display here, as he assists the adventurers in their
journey. This is either Ruggedo or Roquat (to be determined).
1993: Dr. Angelina Bean
in Oz: Ruggedo is again wandering. At long last, he is reformed once
and for all! This is either Ruggedo or Roquat (to be determined).
2002: Ruggedo in Oz: After years of
living in a cave in the Gillikin Country, searching for the Pillar of
Truth, Ruggedo regains his memory. Although considered reformed, when
he meets two children, he sets off on a new adventure to reclaim the
Magic Belt. He later touches eggs and would otherwise be destroyed save
for being in Oz. To alleviate this, he is made an ambassador of Oz,
allowing him to return to Ev. This is either Ruggedo or Roquat (to be
Relations of the Wicked Witches of Oz
Note: The following names and relations are based on established works and works which have not yet been published.
History: From 1744 to 1871, a Wicked Witch
ruled in at least two of the four quadrants of Oz. For over 125 years, the
Compass Witches dominated and terrorized Oz, and yet they could never take
full control due to the prevailing forces that ruled at the capital in Morrow,
the Good Witch in the South, and the Good Witch in the North.
The weakest link of the confederacy of Compass
Witches was always the Wicked Witch of the South, of which there were three in
succession, each dangerous in her own right, but each succumbing to the power
of Glinda the Good Witch of the South. It began with the defeat of Angra
in 1802, her sister Singra in 1847, and finally the Jinxland witch Blinkie
some time around or before 1871. That date also marked both the biggest
win and final blow for the confederacy.
Mombi had at last managed to defeat the royal
family at Morrow. Kings Ozroar, Pastoria I and II, grandfather, father
and son, all done away with, even down to their meddling wives and prime
ministers, all who might possibly pose a threat. The capital was free to
rule. But which of the Witches would rule it?
That contested question would never be answered
as Mombi was suddenly defeated in her own territory by a mere Tah-Tipuu, Locasta, the
so-called Good Witch of the North (though only for a time, as Mombi's power
would return over a decade later to exact revenge). And one blow
followed another. Before the East and West Witches could take over
Morrow and rule Oz, a Wizard dropped out of the sky. Not only were they unable to
defeat him, a task that would've proved simple had they still had the combined power of
all four witches, but the Wizard brought with him hope! The people
rallied around this new and mysterious savior from above. By the time
Mara and Mordra were able to destroy the capital at Morrow (aka Amara) once and for all in
1892, it was a moot point. The Wizard had built and moved into a new
walled capital in the central greenlands called The Emerald City, Mombi was
once again defeated by a Good Witch in the North (and this one of her own
making!), and the child of the Fairy Queen, prophesied to rule Oz, was
It was clear that there were other forces at
work. But the witches were nothing if not tenacious, and they bided
their time. Six years would pass before they would be ready to make
their move on the Emerald City and its sham wizard. And then, as the day
approached, an even greater threat came from the sky, the witch killer
herself, Dorothy Gale. Within a single month, 21 days to be exact, the two most
powerful dark forces in Oz would be swept away by a mere six year old girl
without power, wealth or name. The niece of poor farmers, Dorothy of Kansas would usher in the Golden Age of Oz, ruled by the benevolent powers
of a Fairy, Ozma, a Witch, Glinda, and a mortal, Oscar Diggs. These
three would ensure that the peoples of the land would remain in love, peace,
prosperity and security.
Primary Witch Siblings
Wicked Witch of the West:
Birth name: Mordra. Familial nickname: Lady Morella, the Wise Witch of the
West. Accidentally melted by Dorothy. (The
Wonderful Wizard of Oz) She returned briefly in the body of
the Witch Queen Enilrul. (The
Witch Queen of Oz). As with her sister, this witch has been assigned
several names in spin-off fiction and films, including Bastinda (from
Magic Land series), Evillene (from the musical and film The Wiz),
Allidap (from the Wiz Kids of Oz teacher Padilla), Elphaba (from the
book and musical Wicked), and Theodora (from the 2013 film Oz the
Great and Powerful), and others. A story in
Oziana 2013 ("Witches of the West") implies that these are false names
used and sold by the witch for power, though it seems unlikely that any of
these names would have ever been known, let alone used, in Oz, but they may be
placeholders for the actual names she gathered and sold. A good version of
Mordra appeared in Oz from a parallel Oz universe created when Ozma went back
in time with Tempus in
Paradox in Oz. This benevolent Mordra now lives in Oz with her son Buddy (The
Living House of Oz) in Oz.
Wicked Witch of the East:
Birth name: Malva. Familial nickname: Lady Malvonia, the Wise Witch of the
East. Called Gingema or Gingemma (which simply means witch) by some of the Munchkins. A glimpse
into her early life and rule can be found in
The Magic Umbrella of Oz. She is the elder of the two sisters, and
the vainer of the two. She owned the Silver Shoes that had once belonged
to the dark fairy Enilrul. She was put asleep for a time (in part due to
the time-traveling exploits of Button Bright and Ojo), after which Princess
Ava, another witch─and
her (if Ages of Oz is to be believed and accepted as historical). When Dorothy came to
Oz, she was crushed by Uncle Henry's house carried by a tornado to Oz (The
Wonderful Wizard of Oz). She returned briefly due to Father
Goose's magic pen (Father
Goose in Oz), and then again in the body of the Witch Queen Enilrul. (The
Witch Queen of Oz) As with her sister, this witch has been assigned
several names in spin-off fiction and films, including Evvamene (from the
musical and Evermean from the film The Wiz), Nessarose (from the book
and musical Wicked), and Evanora (from the 2013 film Oz the Great
and Powerful). A story in
Oziana 2013 ("Witches of the West") implies that these are false names
used and sold by the witch for power. Yet, as with her sister, it seems
highly unlikely that names invented for movies and musicals have any relevance
to what took place in the historical Oz, but these may be placeholders for the
actual names she gathered and sold.
Unknown Witch of the North:
Birth name: Nemain. Familial nickname: Feah. Murdered in the distant past by
her sisters. Nimmie Aimee is her daughter, but this is known to few. Little else is known about her,
though rumors abound that she yet lives in secret in the Dangerous Passages in
the northwestern corner of Oz (forthcoming in The Wizards of Silver and
Gold in Oz and In Flesh of Burnished Tin)
Birth name: Unknown. Called Sir Wiley Gyle. Appeared in 1901 in
The Speckled Rose of Oz. Defeated by the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and
Lion, and made a prisoner. Whereabouts unknown. Little is known of this
brother of the Wicked Witches, or even whether his claim are even true (though
they're not improbable).
Secondary Witch Sisters (and cousins of the Primary Witches)
1st Wicked Witch of the South:
Possible birth name: Anann. Chosen name: Angra. Put to sleep by Glinda in
1802. Defeated in 1902. (The
Enchanted Apples of Oz). Angra was a powerful and violent witch who
when she was reawakened nearly defeated Ozma herself. The period of time in
which she reigned over the southern Quadling country is yet untold in story,
but it was a likely a dark age for that quadrant.
2nd Wicked Witch of the South:
Possible birth name: Sinnian. Chosen name: Singra. Put to
sleep by Glinda in 1831. Arises again in 1931. (The
Wicked Witch of Oz). Singra was neither as powerful or vicious as her
sister, and although she could read a spellbook and put together the
ingredients to create magical objects and formulae, she appears to have
depended on her cousins, the Wicked Witches of the East and West, for most of
her power. Although named Wicked Witch of the South, she never ruled the
southern quadrant, something she always longed to. While it appears she came
to power before Glinda ruled the South, Glinda served as the Royal Sorceress
to the Quadling King Jandor IV prior to becoming ruler of the south. Singra
did succeed in driving out King Jandor and the Royal Family, but this only led
to Glinda's taking over rule. In either case, her abilities were never quite
strong enough to defeat those in power. She appears to have been some years
younger than Angra.
1st Wicked Witch of the North:
Information forthcoming. Long before Mombi, a truly evil witch ruled the
north, who was defeated at the hands of a young girl.
Wicked Witch of the North:
Bina. Adopted name: Mombi. Defeated by Locasta, the Good Witch of the North in 1871. Then
in 1892, she's defeated by Queen Orin, who she inadvertently made Good Witch
of the North when she switched her with Locasta (The Giant Horse of Oz
and the forthcoming "Tommy Kwikstep and the Magpie"). She came back into her powers soon after. The most effective of the witches, having abducted Ozma's grandfather King Oz, her father Pastoria II, and grandfather Ozroar (aka. King
Oz Andahan the Roarer), as well as the King of the Munchkins. Purported to have been executed by water in
1913 (The Lost King of Oz),
it was later revealed that she is a Yookoohoo and could not be destroyed
by such means. Ozma spared her life and gave her the Water of Oblivion
to drink instead (Oziana #38
"Executive Decisions"). Mombi's memory returned during the
events of Bucketheads in Oz,
and she abducted Ozma and Glinda. Her goal, in that instance, was to exile
the youth of Oz, some of whom had bullied her in years past. She was
later rendered harmless again by the keepers of the Mys-Tree, who likely gave
her water from the Fountain of Oblivion.
3d Wicked Witch of the South:
name: Unknown. Known name: Blinkie. Defeated in the late 1800s by Glinda; she
attempted to assert power again in 1901 when she conjured the Sand Serpent (The Amber Flute of Oz), but escaped to Jinxland, where her other three sisters resided, Bilkie, Bikkie
and Bittie. She had a fourth sister, Bleakie, who put aside the practice
of dark magic and went with a wizard outside of Oz to do good in other lands
("Reddy and Willing: The Adventures of Jair
in Oz"). Blinkie worked as a minor witch, but caused trouble when she froze the heart of Princess Gloria. She was later
shrunk and robbed of magic (The Scarecrow of Oz and
The Gardener's Boy of Oz).
Even though she knew of Mombi, had considered her a hero when she was in
her youth, and likely worked together as Compass Witches in 1870-71, Blinkie didn't actually
get to meet Mombi until they joined forces in
The Ork in Oz.
It is unknown which of the three Wicked Witches
of the South leagued with the other three to depose King Oz, but it cannot
have been Blinkie (as she didn't even meet Mombi until many years later). Seeing as Angra and Singra
are sisters, it seems likely that the one took up the role of
the other when the first was deposed, but how long (if any) a gap of time in
between is not known. When both were defeated by Glinda, Blinkie then emerged from Jinxland to fill that vacuum.
She did not last long and was forced to return to Jinxland. It is
possible that other witches also came and went in these roles during certain
periods, but as of yet there is no evidence to say either way.
Ozma and Tip: The Switcheroo
L. Frank Baum left his
readers with many unanswered questions, not a few of which have been
reconciled by later authors who've examined the text and drawn certain
conclusions. In some cases, however, these fixes (known as retcons)
appear to contradict each other, and require a new way of looking at
things. One of these involves the time that Ozma spent with Mombi as
the boy Tip.
In Melody Grandy's
Seven Blue Mountains of Oz trilogy, it is revealed that Ozma was not
just changed into a boy, but switched into a boy's body. Tip is
actually a person, who was himself switched into the body of Ozma at the
very same time. In that story, Tip (then named Dinny) says he was born 28 years
earlier. This is when the switcheroo spell occurred. According
to the internal chronology, this event happened in 1873, two years after
the Wizard arrived in Oz in 1871 (see
this entry for evidence on
that date). This accords with that is said in
the Wizard in Oz (p. 197), by Ozma who says, “Mombi was still my
grandfather’s jailor, and afterward my father’s jailor. When I was born
she transformed me into a boy.”
One seeming problem with this can be
found in Hugh Pendexter III's
Oz and the Three Witches, as the
Wizard doesn't hand baby Ozma to Mombi until his third visit to see her.
This visit occurs after the construction of the Emerald City and its
palace, which is many years after he arrives in Oz, specifically in 1893,
which lines up with another historical point worth considering: Jack
Pumpkinhead says that Tip lived with Mombi for nine years.
The final point to consider is that when the
Good Witch of the North defeated Mombi and kicked her out of her hut, there is no child with Mombi at
the time, else Orin would have taken her into custody (nor could Mombi
have hidden him, as Orin stumbled upon Mombi by accident).
In order to reconcile
The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz trilogy with
Oz and the Three Witches, one thing must be true: Mombi must have performed the
switcheroo spell on Ozma and Tip BEFORE the Wizard gave baby Ozma into her
Oz and the Three Witches
makes it clear that Mombi is cunning enough to obey the East and West
witches to their faces, while secretly working to her own advantage.
Mombi tells the Wizard that the baby is from a fairy band. If they
discover it's been killed, they will return to rein destruction down on
them. To avoid this, the child must be kept alive. This would
explain why, when given the opportunity to disguise Ozma, she transforms
her into a boy, even though the baby is not yet in her custody. Once
the Wizard discovers that he cannot protect the child well, he hands her
(now him) over to Mombi to better safeguard her/him (which she does).
Kings and Queens of Oz
Oz history is replete with mention of various kings and
queens over the centuries, with some accounts that appear to be confusing or
contradictory, but most of which reflect incomplete information. The
following timeline should help to demonstrate the various monarchs and the
years they reigned, as revealed in the numerous archives. This timeline
should by no means be seen as exhaustive; as new information comes
forward, it will be updated. It is known that the kings and queens of Oz
had fairy blood, yet they themselves were not fairies. How this came
about is yet unknown. No fairy, except the evil Enilrul, ruled Oz until Ozma's ascension in
1901/2. The titles given to prior kings were King Oz and Queen Ozma.
This usually preceded their given or chosen names. In Ozma's case, that
was her given name long before coming to Oz, though her memory of that period
has only come back to her over the years.
283 AD: Ozroar is born as Andahan in the Blue
Land, which is much later to be known as the Munchkin Country. He is the
son of a powerful fairy. His name Andahan means "Therefore the Dawn," but it can
also mean, "Therefore pain," and is said to be the first words uttered by his
650: The Ozian calendar year is established as
Year 1 with Oz as a realm of four quadrants.
1227: Following her sister Queen Enilrul's
abdication, Lurline places Andahan on the throne of Oz.
He becomes King Oz Andahan the Roarer, but is later more commonly known as Ozroar the Blue Emperor.
He will rule Oz intermittently for several hundred years. He has a son in
this year, Pastoria, though with whom is not yet known. It is also yet unknown
why it took him 900 years to have a son and heir.
1255: Prince Pastoria has a son: Prince Pastoria
II. Pastoria I's wife (and Pastoria II's mother) is not yet known.
1256: 29 year old Prince Pastoria becomes King Oz
Pastoria I. Pastoria's reign is marred by the curse Enilrul placed on
him the very year he ascended the throne, and he becomes known as the Mad
King. Ozroar adopts Pastoria II as his own to protect him from his
real father. This protects the boy for nine years.
1265: When King Oz tries to kill Pastoria II,
Lurline takes the boy to protect him in Burzee and elsewhere. In a mad
rage, King Oz leaves Oz in search of his son for 500 years. The former
becomes the Blue Emperor of Oz again.
1400: Due to reasons unknown a new king is
crowned, a magician named Ozgood the Magnificent. He does some good
during his time as king, including routing the wooden gargoyles and creating a
sand snake to patrol the Deadly Desert.
1489: Due to reasons unknown, Queen Ozma Shallina
is crowned ruler of Oz.
1733: The Mad King Oz Pastoria I returns to Oz and
takes back rule, whether from his father Ozroar or another is unknown.
1742: With the Waters of Oblivion, the Fairy Queen Lurline restores King Oz Pastoria I's
sanity. He abdicates to his now aged son, Prince Pastoria II, who
has returned to Oz with a wife. He becomes King Oz Pastoria II.
Lurline leaves the fairy Ozma, now in the form of a baby, with him and his
wife Cordia. She will remain an infant for 150 years.
1743: With the stability of Oz restored, Ozroar
establishes himself as ruler of the southern part of the Munchkin Country in
Seebania, ending a potential civil war with the northern Munchkin king in the
Ozure Isles. The Blue Emperor continues to be popular with the people,
but he must
several times fight to keep his crown in Seebania.
1871: The four Compass Witches put in motion their
plan to conquer Oz. Mombi abducts the former King Oz Pastoria I.
She then enchants the current King Oz Pastoria II, his wife Cordia, and his
prime minister Pajuka. But before any of the witches can take the
throne, Oscar Diggs drops out of the sky and is declared the Wizard of Oz and
proclaimed ruler. He is brought to the capital at Morrow and becomes Oz
the Great and Terrible.
1882: Ree Ala Bad's father, a Chieftain of
Shamsbad, wrests control of Seebania from Ozroar, deposing him for a time.
A violent man, he shoots and kills Namyl the
1883: Ozroar takes back Shamsbad and is once again
the Blue Emperor of Seebania.
1887: Mombi performs a switcheroo spell,
transforming the baby girl Ozma into the baby boy Tippetarius. It is not
known if the Wizard is aware of this, or if the infant's guardian even tells him.
Mombi abducts the northern King of the Munchkins, leaving Prince Cheeriobed to
become king in the Ozure Isles.
1892: Mombi abducts and enchants Ozroar at Prince Pompadore's
christening; Ree Ala Bad's father exploits this and takes back rule of
Seebania. The East and West Witches destroy Morrow, the capital of Oz.
The Wizard moves into the newly constructed palace in the Emerald City and
gives baby Ozma/Tip to Mombi. The child starts growing at a normal rate.
1898: Oscar Diggs leaves Oz. With the Wizard
gone, the Scarecrow is made King of Oz.
1901: With the help of Mombi, the Scarecrow is
deposed by General Jinjur, who briefly takes over rule of Oz. Princess
Ozma is disenchanted by Glinda the Good, and becomes Queen Designate.
The king of Seebania is killed on a hunting trip.
1902: Princess Ozma is inaugurated.
The Glass Cat
The Wizard removed
Glass Cat's pink brains at the end of
The Patchwork Girl of Oz and replaced
them with clear ones. Yet in every story involving Bungle since then, she is
described as having pink brains. Perhaps Baum
realized that the Wizard's lobotomy wasn't such a great thing, and that
without her conceitedness, she wasn't much of a character. As Baum
doesn't show the Wizard restoring her original pink brains, however, it opened
up the opportunity for modern historians to tell that tale. Turns out it
was more involved than it might at first seem.
Rainbow" and Eric Shanower's short "The Final Fate of the Frogman"
confirm that the Wizard indeed gave the Glass Cat back her pink brains.
But it wasn't until 2000 and 2004 that readers got a clearer picture of how
this came about.
seeming incongruities between two of the three short stories that tell the
tale, but put together, they
indicate that there were TWO incidents in which the Wizard removed and
restored Bungle's brains.
"Toto and the Truth" (Oz-Story #6),
the first event, is set during the concluding narrative of
The Patchwork Girl of Oz,
and has the Glass Cat request her original brains back, which the Wizard
concedes to, and does off-screen. The onscreen event is depicted in the
Oziana 2011 story "Voyaging Through Strange Seas of Thought, Alone,"
which reveals that the Wizard physically removed the pink brains (actually
marbles) and replaced them with clear ones.
Bungle and the
Magic Lantern of Oz, Dorothy recalls that Bungle had gotten a little
loopy without her original brains, climbing a tree, laughing maniacally, and
spraying bubble bath on anyone who passed by.) At the urging of
Scraps, the Wizard restores the pink ones, but it doesn't last,
as Bungle soon becomes conceited again, which causes the Wizard to turn her
brains clear this time, but this time he does it magically. (In the
Magic Carpet of Oz
the Wizard says that the Glass Cat herself had requested the change to clear
brains, but this doesn't seem quite right and without context, it's hard to ascertain if this request was made
under threat or duress). This is confirmed by
Magic Carpet of Oz (the Bungle portion was first published in
"A Bungled Kidnapping in Oz"),
which is set after
The Lost Princess of Oz. In this story,
after the Glass Cat rescues Ozma, she grants her wish to have her brains restored,
and the Wizard does so merely by placing a black curtain over her head,
and flipping a switch.
Another mystery, unrelated to the first, emerged regarding the Glass Cat's breakability. She is
concerned about this issue in
The Patchwork Girl of Oz, where she's first
introduced, though she proves quite hardy in her later adventures. In
"The Ruby Heart," (Oz-story Magazine #5)
however, she breaks in two. Then, years later,
she chips again, her ear and some whiskers in Gina Wickwar's
The Hidden Prince of Oz,
and her whole body in
Bungle and the
Magic Lantern of Oz. Yet, Bungle should be relatively
indestructible based on the events of
Bungle of Oz,
in which she makes it clear that she shouldn't break. It's only when she discovers that Dr. Pipt's Paradox Potion undid that property of the Powder of Life,
and she chips her foot, that
Ozma sends her to see Dr. Pipt (something Bungle didn't do in "The
because Pipt wasn't allowed to perform magic at that time). Why does
Bungle think she's indestructible when she's broken in so many prior
adventures? One answer may be that Bungle went to her former guardian,
Dr. Pipt, after the last incident, and requested more Powder of Life for the
express purpose of strengthening her. This would explain why she refers
to herself as "indestructible" and would have proven effective until she came
in contact with the Paradox Potion.
Appendix K: Dr.
Nikidik and Dr. Pipt
For several years, Oz fans pondered
who these crooked magicians were, whether they were the same person, different
individuals, and if so, what their roles were in Oz history.
Thanks to the diligence of modern historians, this mystery has been
The Marvelous Land of
Oz, there is a Crooked Magician who trades with Mombi for the Powder of
Life. Later in that book, when they discover the Wishing Pills, Tip
remembers that Mombi got the Powder of Life from a Dr. Nikidik. In
Road to Oz, the Crooked Magician is said to be the
relative of one Dyna, who after he fell down a precipice and died, brought
his Powder of Life home and used it accidentally on a blue bear rug. A
new piece of the puzzle is added in
The Patchwork Girl of Oz, when
readers are introduced to one Dr. Pipt, the self-proclaimed creator of the
Powder of Life, who says he's the only one who makes the Powder of Life, and
who is making a new batch because he gave his last one in a trade to Mombi.
Ozma also confirms that the Crooked Magician was Dr. Pipt, who Mombi traded
with for the Powder of Life.
From this, some have
concluded that the two crooked magicians are the same man. However, in
The Lost King of
Oz, the Wishing Pills are discussed as being the creation of Dr.
Nikidik. This has convinced many that Dr. Pipt was the creator of the
Powder of Life, and Dr. Nikidik the creator of the Wishing Pills.
Wooglet in Oz,
Dagmar in Oz,
Bungle and the Magic Lantern of Oz,
The Witch Queen of Oz,
The Master Crafters of Oz,
The Living House of Oz,
Bungle in Oz,
"The Malevolent Mannequin of Oz,"
and other sources, Dr. Pipt, the Crooked Magician, and
Dr. Nikidik are two different individuals.
Much of the discrepancy was
later uncovered when it was found that due to fear of detection and a desire
to remain anonymous, the
two men used each other's names as aliases. Dr. Ozwald Pipt (his first name revealed in
Goose in Oz) used the name Dr. Nikidik when he
presumed he was dead, but took a different course than his former rival. He is not only
legally producing the powder of life in Oz, but is a welcome presence at the
The real Dr. Nikidik (about whom Dyna lied in claiming was dead) had in fact traded with Dr. Pipt
earlier (Bungle recalls that he often stole from Dr. Pipt:
The Witch Queen of Oz). Nikidik was the de facto
inventor of the Wishing
Pills. He initially stopped practicing magic in 1902 when the law
was passed, though this may have
been a ruse to keep Glinda off his radar while he plotted to resurrect Enilrul. During this time he raised his
son Nikidik the Younger, who proved less patient than his father. It is
unknown who his mother is. When
that young man summoned Mombi to trick her into teaching him magic, they both got exposed to Youthing Powder,
and became infants, who were put in the care
of Dr. Nikidik.
(Dorothy and the Magic
Belt) In 1907, however, Nikidik was convinced (likely by the
magician Braxus) to give up the children (to new citizens who came to Oz) and
begin practicing magic again in Taker's Island, at which point he went into
exile to Taker's Island with Braxus (Dagmar in Oz).
Dr. Nikidik then secretly snuck back into Oz. As per
The Master Crafters of Oz, Dr. Nikidik is
revealed to be an ancient, though human, mage, the former consort of Enirul,
who had since trapped him inside a Magic Box being held by Ozma in the palace.
Ozma eventually freed him and gave him water from the Fountain of Oblivion,
after which she exiled him again to Taker's Island
(Wooglet in Oz). He
appears to be truly reformed at this point, and after helping Oz against an invasion from
the rival wizard Braxus, he was awarded his magical library and tools, which
he can use outside of Oz and back on Taker's Island where he returned to live,
though he appears in Oz from time to time (Dagmar in Oz).
By the time of
Bungle in Oz, Dr. Pipt has
applied for a magic license and is back to brewing magical formulae, including
the Powder of Life and the Paradox Potion. By the time of
The Living House of Oz, Dr. Pipt is no longer
straightened (which the Wizard did for him in
The Patchwork Girl of Oz), but is back to being crooked (physically speaking). His wife, Margolette
admits that she
uses three different names for her husband:
his original, Dr. Pipt; his assumed name, Dr. Nikidik; and his newly adopted
name, Dr Widget.
Appendix L: Rulers of the
The history of the Winkie rulers has been
shrouded in mystery for a long time, in large part because none of the
original Oz authors had an opportunity to delve into the back-story of
this realm. In recent times, however, authors have been exploring
the Winkie past, and have uncovered some interesting facts. Note
that some of these come from stories not yet published.
1744: Queen Lana's
kingdom of Topaz City flees with Lana's chief suitor, Mr. Tinker, to the
moon (The Lost Queen of Oz)
1744: The Wicked Witch of the West enchants Queen Lana and her two children, and destroys Topaz
City (The Lost Queen of Oz)
1744: A runner makes his way to King Willinos and Queen Neldra, informing
them that the royal family is no more.
1744: King Willinos and Queen Neldra become de facto rulers of the Winkies.
("The First Triumph of the Wicked Witch of the West")
1745: The WWW eventually shows up at their doorstep, and enchants or
destroys them. ("The First Triumph of the Wicked Witch of the West")
1745: A messenger from their kingdom makes his way to Amberly Village.
1745: Princess PieRita, perhaps a niece of Willinos or Neldra, or,
possibly, a relative of Queen Lana, is made
Queen. (The Astonishing Tale of the Gump of Oz)
1745: The Wicked Witch of the West establishes dominion in this region, threatening death to
anyone who would challenge that, and forcing PieRita to abdicate. (The
Astonishing Tale of the Gump of Oz)
1899: Despite having held the Wicked Witch at
bay in the southern Winkie country that she ruled, Queen Gloma fears
Dorothy, the "Witch Killer," and goes into hiding in the Black Forest.
1900: The Tin Woodman is elected Emperor of
the Winkies due to his role in helping defeat the Wicked Witch of the
West. (The Wonderful Wizard of Oz)
Appendix M: Sky Countries in Nonestica
This will continue to be added as I
discover new ones, but as of my current counting,
there are eleven sky countries in Nonestica. Each entry is followed by its
country or origin, or the country above which it was discovered:
Sky Island (Sky
Island): Sky kingdom. Floats above Nonestica
The Cloud Kingdom (Jubulut):
The realm of the Cloud Tender, Jubulut, the Cloud Sculptors, and cloud fairies.
Umbrella Island (Speedy
in Oz): Mechanically floating island. Originally part of Ev. Can
The Isle of Un (The
Cowardly Lion of Oz): A skyle (aka. sky island). Floats above Oz
Cloud Country (The
Hungry Tiger of Oz): A cloud realm where Atmos Fere lives. Floats
high above Nonestica.
Maribella's skyland (in
Grampa of Oz): A cloud
realm. Floats above Oz
Anuther Planet (The
Silver Princess of Oz): Sky kingdom. Planet is a misnomer. Floats
with the Wizard of Oz): Sky kingdom. Floats above Oz.
Sky City (The Tired Tailor of Oz):
Mechanically floating island. Originally part of Ev. Can fly anywhere.
Red Jinn in Oz): A cloud realm; floats above Ev, but can travel
Enchanted Island of Oz): A temporary sky island that started out
as (and returned to) a Gillikin Country before becoming a sea island and
then a sky island for a few days before it was wished back to land.
Appendix N: The Sapient
Roads of Oz
There are no less than ten sentient or sapient roads or
fields in Oz. Some speak, some follow orders, some just whisk one off to
wherever, but all of them are moving, living pathways in Oz. One is an
entire peninsula. How they were created is uncertain. The Wizard
of Oz created one, and it may be that the Wizard Wam enchanted the others
aeons ago for the benefit of speedy travel. The following are listed in
order of appearance.
An unnamed rolling road in the Winkie
country, in The Royal Book of Oz.
The Runaway Road,
also in the Winkie country, in Grampa in Oz.
The Winding Road in the Emerald City, in
The Hungry Tiger of Oz.
hundred-footed Footpath in the Winkie Country, in
The Gnome King of Oz
The Magic Bowls of Oz.
The Runaway Country, who becomes the Runaway Island (and then Ruggedo's
The Gnome King of Oz,
The Flying Field of
The Yellow Knight of Oz, located in the Winkie Country.
The River Road in the Quadling Country, in
The Purple Prince of Oz.
The Rolling Road in the Munchkin Country, in
Ojo in Oz.
High Way, near the base of Tip Top Mountain, in the
Gillikin Country, in
The Merry Mountaineer of
The Footbridge was built by the Wizard in the Quadling
Country. It spans the Rubber River, escorting travelers north to the Emerald
The Merry Mountaineer of
Appendix O: Tik-Tok's
L. Frank Baum's map, included as the endpapers in 1914's
Tik-Tok of Oz, might have seemed like a clever and creative idea at the
time. But in much the same way science-fiction sometimes tries too hard
to sound spacey, Baum went too far in fantasizing the map, placing the
west in the east, and the east in the west, and designating that he did such
with the compass in the top right corner which clearly shows that the Munchkin
Country is STILL in the East and the Winkie Country STILL in the West, despite
the map placing them in the reverse locations. It's also clear in his
books that the Munchkins are in the east and the Winkies in the West, but his
whimsy would go on to cause problems, particularly after he died.
some reason, when Reilly & Lee reprinted the book and map, they "corrected"
the compass rose, which then made the map incorrect, with the East designation
on the right and the West on the left. This now made it appear as if the
Munchkin Country were in the West and the Winkies in the East, and as Ruth
Plumly Thompson may have owned one of these later editions, she went on in her
books to create all kinds of directional problems (which Reilly & Lee didn't
bother to understand or correct).
For readers, fans and authors looking
for a detailed map that contains not only Baum's locations, but locations from
all of the countries mentioned in the canonical series, seek out the Martin & Haff map, published by the International Wizard of Oz Club, which goes a long
way towards correcting the geographical contradictions that the books make.
David Maxine of Hungry Tiger Press is anxious to correct
some of the problems that Martin & Haff introduced. I've read his
concept and agree with nearly everything he states. My only issue is his
desire to return to the Baumian whimsy of East/West reverse again. I'd
argue that's fine, so long as there's a version for those who prefer that east
is east and west is west.
Appendix P: The Living Dolls in Oz
With the discovery of a living Scarecrow by Dorothy Gale in 1898, it
was soon understand by fans of that magical and mysterious realm that Oz was
filled with unusual beings of all kinds, including walking, talking dolls. Here is
a working list of them and the books they appear in:
Although she turns out to be something else, Peg Amy, the much abused doll of
the embittered Ruggedo living under the Emerald City, is the first living doll listed in an Oz
book. In Kabumpo in Oz,
Peg Amy and her rabbity friend Wag escape from a suddenly giant Ruggedo and
discover adventure and surprises.
In his book, Lucky Bucky in Oz,
longtime illustrator and third-time Oz author John R. Neill discovered a
strange race of half-doll, half-fish called the Dollfins that tried to keep
Bucky Jones with them as a forever companion. With the help of his
friend, the whale Davey Jones, he managed to get away from the grubby
Raggedy Ann and Andy: From the Raggedy Ann series of books by Johnny
Gruelle, Raggedy Ann and Andy were brought into Oz by Ray Powell in 1967, in
his manuscript The Raggedys in
Oz. It was reprinted in 1991, but it's second edition from 2006
made it work with existing canon.
Shrinkin' Violet: From the 1974 manuscript The Morrises in Oz, by Ruth
Morris, it was published in book form by Buckethead Enterprises of Oz in 1993
as The Flying Bus of Oz
(though actually titled The Flying Bus in Oz). Violet turns out
to be not quite what she seems, and now lives in Oz under a very different
Ruth Morris described the adventures of yet a second doll who came to Oz, this
time the irrepressible Angelina Bean, who starred in the adventure under her
own named Dr. Angelina
Bean in Oz, written in 1993, but not published until 2002, it's
significant for being the story that shows the Nome Ruggedo's final turn to
good, after many years of vanity, cruelty and greed.
In need of wives, Native American Brownies bring to life a young Emily Gale's
hollyhock dolls in Phyllis Ann Karr's
The Hollyhock Dolls in Oz,
an adventure that also looks at an older Em coming to terms with her new
life and the Good Witch of the North retiring from her old.
Fionna Freckles is another doll who stars in her own adventure, only she
doesn't come to Oz, but ends up instead in the land of the Phanfasms.
Freckles the First and Foremost, by W. Randy Hoffman, details this
doll's origins and transformation into the being that helps the Phanfasms,
newly returned from the Emerald City after having drunk the Waters of
Oblivion, stay on a good course, at least for a time.
Poppet is the outspoken ragdoll of Chastity, the first Amish girl to come to
Oz in Margaret Berg's The Reading Tree of Oz.
The Malevolent Mannequin in Oz, written by me for the pages of the 2015
Oziana magazine, looks at
the darker tradition of talking dolls, this time one that comes into the
possession of the witch Mombi, who tells us in her own journal of the
circumstances that nearly led to her destruction.
Crossovers in Oz
An incomplete list at this time, and one that will grow as more information
comes forward. The Oz universe was first crossed over by L. Frank Baum
himself, when he brought his other non-Oz fantasy stories, now known as the Borderlands of
Oz stories, into Oz. Ruth Plumly Thompson continued in this tradition and brought
in her own fantasy worlds, such as Pumperdink and others. But Baum
also inorporated elements of other authors' fantasy stories, including Edith
Ogden Harrison's Prince Silverwings, and Emerson Hough's The King of Gee-Whiz,
both of which Baum worked on (for plays) and which have ideas
and characters he developed in his own tales. With the precedent set,
later writers continued the tradition, and as a result several other universes
now share the same universe as Oz.
The Cthulhu and Dreamlands Mythos of H.P. Lovecraft, sometimes referred to as
the Cthulhu Mythos.
Eldritch Horror of Oz" (Oziana 1981) and
"A Side View of the Nonestic" (Oziana
1987) both directly reference Lovecraftian elements. A
forthcoming work, The Ancient Dawn of Oz, will reconcile Baum's origin
The Life and
Adventures of Santa Claus) with the one developed by Lovecraft.
Middle-Earth: The legendarium of J.R.R. Tolkien, as
developed in The Silmarillion, The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings,
Unfinished Tales, The Book of Lost Tales and the History of
Middle-Earth series was first referenced in
Chronicles of Oz, which referenced the very same riddle Gollum spoke
to Frodo (which is Tolkien's own composition), indicating a common source, as
well as orcs, goblins and trolls, the history of which is given a Tolkienian
origin in "The Search for Soob: An Oz
Tale," "The Orange Ogres of
Oz," and "Betsy Bobbin in Yatralia."
Neverland: The first story to bring Neverland into
the Ozian universe is Ruth Berman's
story "In a Season of Calm Weather." In it, Dorothy argues with Wendy and
Alice (from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland)
Sherlock Holmes: Arthur Conan Doyle's adventures of Sherlock Holmes and Watson,
comprising 4 novels and 56 short stories (published between 1887 and 1927),
were first incorporated into Oz with Ruth Berman's
Oziana 1971 story, "Sherlock Holmes in Oz,"
and it is a crossover that has continued in several Oz stories, including the
"Great Detective" series, starting with the
story, "The Adventure of the Cat that
Did Not Meow in the Night," the
Oziana 1978 story, "The Adventure of the Missing Belt,"
the Oziana 1980 story, "A
Study in Orange," and the
Oziana 1984 story, "The
Mystery of the Missing Ozma." Chronologically, as of this
writing, Barbara Hambly's
The Adventure of the Sinister Chinaman, from Sherlock Holmes: The Crossovers
Casebook, is the first of these crossovers, taking place during the
time Oscar Diggs returned to the United States after
The Wonderful Wizard
of Oz. As
with the continuation of Oz stories post-Baum, Sherlock Holmes has been
featured in numerous later stories post-Doyle. This leaves a question as
to what, if any, of the later extra-canonical stories are "true," particularly
since Sherlock Holmes has been crossed over into numerous other series.
Some of these are easy to reconcile as existing in the same universe that Nonestica is in (e.g., his crossover with Dracula and Tarzan), others are
a little more challenging to ascertain (e.g., crossovers with War of the
Worlds or Doctor Who), and renders this is a question that will be
under investigation for some time. Those universes which already
crossover into Oz, such as, for example, the Cthulhu mythos, through Phyllis
Ann Karr's "The
Eldritch Horror of Oz" (Oziana 1981) and Shadows Over Baker Street,
can be accepted as canonical on a story-by-story basis. As per the crossovers
listed above, Sherlock Holmes eventually came to live in Oz in 1937 when he
Wonderland: A natural fit, Lewis Carroll's
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, Through the Looking Glass and What
Alice Found There, and Jabberwocky are now events that happened somewhere in the outskirts of Nonestica.
In the case of Alice, there are numerous and conflicting accounts of when
Dorothy and she first met, with some that are clearly re-imaginings of both Oz and
Wonderland. Those that stick to Baum and Carroll are currently under
investigation. The first of these is Ruth Berman's
story "In a Season of Calm Weather."
More to come...
Appendix R: Deadly Desert Inhabitants
(and Those Immune to It)
The four deserts surrounding Oz are known collectively as
The Deadly Desert, though each has an individual name; there is the Impassable
Desert of the north, the Shifting Sands to the East, the Greaty Sandy West in
the south, and the Deadly Desert of the west. They are called The Deadly
Desert because their sands are destructive to all living creatures,
with several exceptions. The following is a list of the known creatures
who either live in the Deadly Desert, or who can trod its sands without being
The Heelers, from
The Wonder City of Oz,
are the first inhabitants discovered to live in the Deadly Desert
(specifically in the Great Sandy Waste, which is south of the Quadling
Country). A spineless, spongelike creature, their biology and culture
are difficult to comprehend based on Neill's description of them.
The Mifkits of
The Scalawagons of Oz
are relatives of the
John Dough and the Cherub, as well as the
Scoodlers of The Road to Oz,
and are the second Neill-discovered creature who
live on the Deadly Desert. How is never described.
The short, but stately Madou tribe, of
A Refugee in Oz, live in an
oasis on the Deadly Desert. Their ability to float and create structures
upon the sand, and presumably air filters, made this a viable option for this
noble and insular folk.
The Flame Folk, of
The Shaggy Man of Oz,
are called the Dwellers of the Desert. As their bodies are made of fire,
this is an appropriate location for them to live. They also mention the
existence of an oasis on the Desert, though they themselves don't live there.
The two known oases are the one the Madou created and lived upon (prior to
Ruggedo's destruction of it) and the one the Gypsies live upon, called The
Fountains of Romany, in
The Forbidden Fountain
Desert Ponies: From
The Enchanted Island of
Oz, it is conjectured by some that the "swift desert ponies" that are
used by bandits to get the kidnapped camel Humpty across the Deadly Desert are
somehow immune to the destructive powers of the desert, and are the same
horses that draw the wagons of the Gypsies to the Fountains of Romany, an
oasis in the Deadly Desert, mentioned in
The Forbidden Fountain
Sandamanders and Sand Whales (aka. voiptiggs): The composite
Sandamanders, of Ruggedo in Oz,
have the heads of humans, the bodies of lobsters and the hindquarters of
kangaroos. They live with and are ferried around by their fellow sand
whales, the voiptiggs, for whom it is poisonous to be outside the sands of the
Deadly Desert for too long. The Sandamanders don't have this issue, but
call the Deadly Desert "The Deserts of the Sands of Life."
Mechanical Men: A group of robots was discovered upon the
Deadly Desert by the Braided Man, when he and his Wooden Gargoyle friend Gorry
crash-landed there in The
Braided Man of Oz. Gorry was able to cast a spell to keep the
Braided Man from perishing and which allowed him to remain on the sands for a
time, though his shoes began to dissipate. It is unknown if the Wooden
Gargoyles cannot be harmed by the sands, or if Gorry cast a similar spell upon
himself. It is more clear that mechanical beings, likely including
Tik-Tok could cross without any problems.
Griffins: Although not an inhabitant and based on only
one example, it appears that griffins are immune to the destroying powers of
the Deadly Desert, as evidenced by Mombi having taken that form when chased by
Glinda unto the Shifting Sands, in
The Marvelous Land of Oz,
and the fact that she does not perish upon it. Neither Snif or Maybe are
known to have attempted a similar feat.
Fire Fairies: Female Gnomes/Nomes who tend the furnaces
and prepare the meals. They don't live on the Deadly Desert, but can
cross it if they so choose.
The Lava Lizard: A giant lizard from Ev that lives
in the lava deep in the earth, Roquat once had his Nomes abduct a female of
the species, hoping to use her to cross over the Deadly Desert into Oz.
From General Jinjur of Oz.
Appendix S: The Emerald City
As per author and artist extraordinaire, Melody Grandy,
here is the Emerald City Palace layout: "Here's
a pic of the layout of the Emerald City Palace, based on the Famous Forty Oz
books, but including a few books written after the Famous Forty. For a palace
written about by several different authors, their descriptions of it hang
together quite well. This is posted to help out present and future Oz authors
who want to keep their Emerald City palace architecture consistent with the rest
of the Oz series...
the palace is at least 4 stories tall. Also, RPT mentions that Omby Amy has a
cottage somewhere in the southeast gardens."
Appendix T: The History of Glinda
There's been a lot of mystery surrounding Glinda the Good's
past, which none of the original Royal Historians ever dealt with. Perhaps they
were too polite to inquire, or perhaps Glinda was too private to wish to share
it with the public. In later years things seem to have loosened up, and we can
glean a basic idea of her past from the tidbits that modern Royal Historians
have put forward.
I find it's best to look at this kind of thing
chronologically. Glinda is revealed in Dennis Anfuso's
The Winged Monkeys of Oz,
to be the daughter of the even more mysterious Gaylette, of whom Baum wrote in
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz:
"There lived here then, away at the North, a beautiful
princess, who was also a powerful sorceress. All her magic was used to help the
people, and she was never known to hurt anyone who was good. Her name was
Gayelette, and she lived in a handsome palace built from great blocks of
tourmaline. Everyone loved her, but her greatest sorrow was that she could find
no one to love in return, since all the men were much too stupid and ugly to
mate with one so beautiful and wise. At last, however, she found a boy who was
handsome and manly and wise beyond his years... so she took him to her ruby
palace and used all her magic powers to make him as strong and good and lovely
as any woman could wish. When he grew to manhood, Quelala, as he was called, was
said to be the best and wisest man in all the land."
Gaylette is clearly an unusual woman who takes matters into
her own hand! Anfuso's same story notes that Glinda's father was an unnamed
traveler who went to the outside world. As this cannot be Quelala, it means that
Gayelette had a prior husband (and might explain why she views men the way she
does.) This will be relevant later.
In Gili Bar-Hillel's "The
Woozy's Tale" (Oziana 1992),
Gayelette was also said to be Glinda's cousin. This is not a contradiction.
Historically, royals commonly married relatives. There are too many unknown
variables to get a full picture of the family tree, save to say that in the new
comic-book adaptation of How
the Wizard Came to Oz, Glinda
is revealed to be the great niece of Locasta, who served as the Good Witch of
the North prior to Orin. (That can make her Gayelette's or her father's aunt).
One way mother and daughter could be cousins is if Gayelette's second husband
Quelala was a cousin of Glinda's through her father's side (her father's nephew,
for example). There are other scenarios that are plausible as well.
The plot thickens in Mycroft Mason's
Sorceress of Oz" (Oziana 2011), in which Glinda is said to have come to Oz from
England around 1582. While this at first glance seems difficult to reconcile, it
actually accords with the prior accounts, and explains Gaylette's aggravation
with men. There must be an untold tale here in which she had a child with
someone she thought she loved, but who betrayed her. It also appears that he
took their child with him to the outside world. That child was Glinda (who was
initially named Linda until years later when she developed her magic in Oz and
was given the sobriquet "Good Linda," later shortened to Glinda: from
The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 3)
Mason's story, Glinda is working as a housemaid to the magician John "Doctor"
Dee, during the time he served as advisor to Queen Elizabeth I, when he opened a
portal to Oz that she fell through. This begs the question: Might John Dee be
her unnamed father? And if so, what was his motivation in bringing Glinda to
the court of Elizabeth I? Was it to teach his daughter about the Outside World?
About what it is to be a queen? Is this why her memory was taken away for a
time? Or was it an accident of some kind? John Dee had first been married in
1565, the very same year Glinda was born and brought from Oz to the Outside
World. It appears that if John Dee is her father, he took her to live with him
and the woman he was to marry that year, Karen Constable, with whom he had no
If John Dee is her father, he is likely Oz-born since
Glinda identifies herself (in Cory
in Oz) as a fairy, though this is suspect to some degree. She's not a
fairy like Ozma or Tititi-Hoochoo, but a native-born Ozite. Thus, she's a
fairy in the same sense that King Cheeriobed and the Menankypoos are
"magically constructed" (see the notes for The
Giant Horse of Oz). They come from a fairyland and therefore consider
themselves fairies, of a sort. Glinda distinguishes Cory as being a
half-fairy because while her mother hailed from Oz, her father was from the
When Glinda was sent back to Oz, she arrived at the
abandoned palace where she now lives, and as she could read Latin and English,
went on to learn magic and discover many valuable tools. It's my supposition
that this was actually her father's castle, and it wasn't by accident that he
returned her to Oz. She yet doesn't have her memories, but this returns along
with her natural powers when she discovers the hidden fountain that the Witch
Queen Enilrul had dissolved in, which left behind a potent mixture of her
magical essence. The Wicked Witches of the East and West had already
magnified their powers when they stumbled upon it. Around 20 or so years
after she returned to Oz, Glinda discovered this hidden fountain, and drank of
it, becoming one of the most powerful magic users in Oz. (The
Witch Queen of Oz), and regaining her memories of who she actually
At some point, her father returns to Oz and Glinda
reunites with him, her mother Gayelette, and her sister Belinda, though it's
not known if this is a reconciliation of the marriage. Doctor Dee's first
wife died in 1574. A year after that, he married an unknown woman, who
purportedly died in 1576. Might he have returned to Oz and married Gayelette
at this time? Is she the unknown woman? The timing could work, with him
going back and forth to Oz, though in either case it appears that the marriage
didn't last past a year. He married again in 1578, but this time he shared
his wife with his friend and fellow magician Edward Kelley and had several
Dee's death is mysterious, as there are no exact records
as to what year he purportedly died (1608 or 1609 are speculated), and both
the parish records and gravestone are missing! Likely, this is the year
"Doctor" Dee returned to Oz (possibly with Glinda's help), four years after
his third wife died. Similarly, there is no record of his three youngest
daughters, Madinia, Frances, and Margaret, and it's possible that they chose
to come to Oz as well. If so, who are they? In the Outside World, his eldest
son Arthur carried on his father's magical legacy, but to date several of his
books have never been recovered. Perhaps that's because they're in Oz.
Belinda, at this point, had grown angry and
uncontrollable. She resents that Glinda is in line to become the Royal
Sorceress of the Quadling Country (The
Enchanted Gnome of Oz), perhaps thinking that since Glinda was away
for so long, the position should have gone to her. She may also resent her
father and mother for various reasons. It's unknown at what point Gayelette
remarried, but if around this time, that also may have been a factor.
Glinda eventually becomes the Royal Sorceress of the Quadling Country, then ruled by King Jandor (from Nathan DeHoff's "The
Red Desert of Oz," Oziana 2005) and his successors, until the time
of King Jandor IV, when the royal family fled in the face of threats by Singra,
the second Wicked Witch of the South, in 1820. At this point, Belinda
rechristened herself Belinda the Bad, and made enemies of her parents and
sister when she threatened their lives. Her father then took away her magic
until she might repent of her wicked ways. Bitterly she left the Quadling
Country to join the Blue Witches of the Munchkin Country.
Glinda, meanwhile, faces Singra. She had already
defeated her older and far more brutal sister Angra years earlier in 1802. So
popular had this made Glinda that she was then asked to become ruler of the
Quadlings, a position that was ratified by the king's son (then contentedly
ruling the Red Desert of Aldehydea) a few years later. Glinda defeated Singra
who she put to sleep for a hundred years in 1831.
In one of the hidden passages in her castle, Glinda
discovered the Great Book of Records in 1892, the same year the Wizard moved
into the newly built Emerald City. Years later, when Ozma ascended the
throne, in 1902, the book mysteriously unlocked.
Glinda's relationship with Gayelette appears estranged,
or cordial at best, and there may be an untold story here. Neither Gayelette
nor her former husband were ever brought into the accepted trio of magic users
during the time magic was forbidden in Oz, and Glinda is rarely seen speaking
or visiting with her, though it's certainly possible that this happens
off-screen. Years later, Gayelette had another girl named Fabia, who went on
to train under Glinda to become a sorceress. The birth of Fabia appears to be
a late development as she was still in training when she fell in love with a
mortal and ran off to the Outside World to be with him and start a family.
They had a son Michael, who appears to have no powers. He remained in the
Outside World with his girlfriend Marla. They had a daughter as well named
Cora-Lee, or Cory, but when she was but an infant, Fabia and her husband got
into a fatal car accident, and Fabia's spirit was stolen by an evil witch
who'd been banished to the Outside World. It wasn't until many years later
(in 1985) that Glinda recovered Fabia and Cory.
The History of the Silver Shoes
The Silver Shoes appeared for the first and only time in a
canonical book in L. Frank Baum's iconic
The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
They were changed by the team at MGM to Ruby Slippers because they felt red
better reflected the new Technicolor production (still a novelty in 1939), and
indeed they took hold of the public's imagination. Yet, despite their
fame, the original Silver Shoes weren't forgotten.
The history of the Silver Shoes, as delineated by the works
found on the Mainline Timeline of The Royal Timeline of Oz, goes far back into
Oz history. A creation of the Witch Queen Enilrul, a dark fairy and the
sister of the Fairy Queen Lurline, who first cursed Oz in 1256, the Silver Shoes
went with Enilrul into the fountain where she dissolved herself after cursing
Pastoria I, the King of Oz. They were there discovered by Mara, the Wise
Woman of the East. The fountain bestowed magic upon the Wicked Witches
(and Glinda who also came upon it) and became The Fountain of Oblivion.
The Wise Woman of the East later became the Wicked Witch of the East.
When Dorothy's house fell on the Wicked Witch of the East
in 1898, the Silver Shoes came into Dorothy's possession, and even the Wicked
Witch of the West couldn't take them from her. When Dorothy used the Shoes
to wish herself back to Kansas, the Shoes were lost as she traveled over the
Deadly Desert back to the Outside World.
As the sands destroy nearly all life which touches it,
there they remained for five years. In 1904, when the Braided Man and a
Wooden Gargoyle (protected by a spell cast by the Gargoyle) landed upon
the Desert, the Braided Man discovered the Silver Shoes and put them on, but
they came off again as he was flown back to his home in Pyramid Mountain.
(R.K. Lionel's The Braided
Man of Oz).
This time the Shoes were not content to stay lost, in large
part because their master had returned. In 1908, they dissolved into the
sands and reconstituted themselves in Oz, where they were fished out of the
Gillikin River and presented to the Good Witch of the North. Determining
them too dangerous to keep in Oz, she brought them to the Bowman, a nearby
giant, who used a slingshot to shoot them to Sky Island. They were likely
intended to go to another witch queen, the kindly Rosalie, but instead they
ended up in the Fog Bank separating the two divided lands and peoples. The
Frog King there discovered them, but his ownership proved short, as Dorothy
(with the help of Glinda) soon retrieved them. Yet, as soon as Dorothy
returned to the Emerald City, the true owner of the Shoes emerges, Enilrul, who
has herself reconstituted. Enilrul sought only to go to the Outside World,
and upon using the Silver Shoes to do so, they were again lost over the Deadly
Desert. (The Witch
Queen of Oz)
It would be Ozma who would next discover them. On her
way back from settling a dispute between Foxville and Dunkiton, the Cowardly
Lion, riding upon the Magic Carpet, stubbed his toe on something sharp.
Using her wand, Ozma retrieved the lost Silver Shoes. She then allowed
Betsy to test them.
(The Silver Shoes of Oz). From there, they went into Ozma's safe.
Different attempts to tell the history of the shoes are told in
Jane MacNeil's Traleewu in Oz
and Paul Miles Schneider's Silver