Ozzy Footnotes 2










The Wonderful Wizard of Oz




The very first book that launched the Oz series, and its most well-known to date, due to the 1939 MGM musical adaptation The Wizard of Oz


The number of publishers that have brought this book into print are countless. For the sake of brevity and continuity, I've only indicated the Dover, Del Rey and Books of Wonder editions for modern publishers because these have published nearly the entire Baum canon and are widely available.  For a more complete list of old and modern publications, see


Synopsis: In this book we meet Dorothy, Toto, Uncle Henry and Aunt Em from Kansas (near Topeka according to the 1904 Ozmapolitan and The Emerald City of Oz).  In Oz, Dorothy meets Boq, the Mayor the Munchkins and three Munchkins, the Good Witch of the North, who gives her an enchanted kiss on the forehead that protects her.  Dorothy frees the Scarecrow from his pole, the Tin Woodman from rust, and the Cowardly Lion from his boorish behavior, all while following the Yellow Brick Road.  The Queen of the Field Mice later rescues Dorothy and the Cowardly Lion from the Deadly Poppy Field.  Once in the Emerald City, readers are introduced to the Guardian of the Gates, Jellia Jamb (though she won't be named until the next book), the Soldier with the Green Whiskers (who won't be named Ombi Amby until Ozma of Oz) and Oscar Diggs, the Wizard, who is at this time, a clever humbug. 


Dorothy's house crushes the Wicked Witch of the East, ending her tyranny of the Munchkins in the east, and Dorothy herself accidentally causes the melting of the Wicked Witch of the West, ending her dominion of the Winkies in the west.


Following the Wizard's departure, and a surprise to those who've only seen the film, Dorothy and her friends travel south, where they pass through the Forest of Fighting Trees and hill of the Hammer-heads (although their exact location is later amended by Baum to be further south—see The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz for a retcon), the Dainty China Country (a resident of whom is depicted on film in Oz the Great and Powerful), and meet the Hungry Tiger (though not yet named) before reaching Glinda the Good in her palace in the southern end of the Quadling Country, who at last sends her home. 


Continuity notes:

Bees: The witch's bees are Stinging Bees, derived from Wisp, a bitter man from the Mountains of Moran in Ivalane (The Ork in Oz), who trained them, and traded them to the Wicked Witch of the West in exchange for magic.  The bees were presumably non-sapient.


Boq: Boq appears again in Father Goose in Oz, and with his wife Johanna in The Hollyhock Dolls in Oz and Bucketheads in Oz.  He creates Mortimor Mix to help keep the Road of Yellow Bricks in repair, in The Tin Castle of Oz.


Dating: This story takes place over the course of 52 days (see the Day-to-Day Chronology). See also the Appendices: Dating the Early Oz booksThe first story in W.W. Denslow's Scarecrow and Tin-Man newspaper strip, "Dorothy's Christmas Tree" gives us an approximate start-and-end date for this story as beginning on November 12 and concluding on January 2nd when she returns to Kansas.  See the entry on that story for more info.


Deadly Poppy Field: In the early years of Ozma's reign, the Deadly Poppy Field is uprooted.  Bunches of poppies are given to Quadling families, while different flowers are planted in the field, leaving only scattered patches of poppies, and a single narrow stripe (too narrow to be dangerous) on the southern border of the Emerald City.  See The Hollyhock Dolls in Oz.


Dogs in Oz: As with most generalizations, the indication that Toto is the first dog in Oz is contradicted by Baum in The Marvelous Land of Oz (Jack Pumpkinhead encounters a green dog in the Emerald City) and the rabbits of Bunnybury in The Emerald City of Oz, who are frightened of dogs.


Gaylette: A beautiful princess and sorceress who lives in a Ruby Castle (made of tourmaline) in the North. This itself is curious, as the Gillikin Country favors purple.  She was beloved by the people she helped, but never appears again in the early stories, nor does she petition for a license to continue practicing magic. Angry that every man she found was either stupid or ugly, she "found a boy who was handsome and many and wise beyond his years." Determining to make him her husband, she used her magic powers to "make his as strong and good and lovely as any woman could wish."  When he grew older, she married him.  His name was Quelala.  As revealed in "The Woozy's Tale," Oziana 1992, Quelala was her cousin.  Marrying cousins was quite common for royals in history.  In The Winged Monkeys of Oz, it's also revealed that she is Glinda's mother, but by another man who went to the outside world.  As Glinda came from the outside world ("The Solitary Sorceress of Oz," Oziana 2011), it indicates that this man took Glinda when she was a baby.  This man might have been John "Doctor" Dee.  See Glinda in the Appendices for more information.


Hammerheads: The origin of the Hammerheads, and their purpose, is detailed in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz. Glinda has since had a road built circumventing their territory.


Interpolation: Several stories interpolate this one, including Oziana 2011's "Cryptic Conversations in a Cornfield," which details the origins of the Scarecrow, Oziana 2002's "Cat and Mouse in Oz," and, "Dreaming in a Scarlet Slumber," which occurs while Dorothy is asleep in the Poppy Field.  Also, as mentioned above, W.W. Denslow's first newspaper strip, "Dorothy's Christmas Tree" occurs while Dorothy is in the Emerald City before the Wizard departs.


Munchkin River: In the early years of her reign Ozma has a bridge rebuilt over the Munchkin River, rejoining the Road of Yellow Brick, which had been bifurcated by the loss of the bridge. The town of Herville also arises on the east side of it in this time, run by Brigadier Tanjrine, formerly of the General Jinjur's army.  See The Hollyhock Dolls in Oz.


Quelala: The husband of Gaylette is given the Hebrew name qelalah, which means malediction or curse.


The Stork: The stork reappears in three stories, The Lavender Bear of Oz, A Promise Kept in Oz, where her name Herrona first appears, and A Small Adventure in Oz.


The Wizard's arrival in Oz: The Wizard states in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz that he ruled in Oz "for many years" [p. 195], which indicates that he had been in Oz for some time prior to Dorothy's arrival.  Hot-air ballooning did not take off in circuses and traveling fairs until 1871, months after Leon Gambetta's highly publicized balloon escape from the Prussian armies in Paris to Southern France, after which ballooning sprang up overnight across circuses and fairs (for more information, see this article).  After only a few years, however, solo balloon shows were no longer trendy or novel, and circuses had added acrobats to spice things up.


A point has been made that the Wizard’s city of origin, Omaha, was not established until 1854, thereby limiting Oscar Diggs' age, however, he may have been born in the region of Omaha prior to it being named such, particularly as Omaha is the name of the Native American tribe that lived in that region, and it may have been called Omaha from as early as 1813 when Manuel Lisa established a large trading post there. 









Dreaming in a Scarlet Slumber


Continuity notes: This short story, which takes place while Dorothy is asleep in the poppy field (during chapter VIII of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz), is a prologue and foreshadow of events to come in Jeff Rester's forthcoming Death Comes to Oz.  It is the first time Dorothy is shown to have occasional prophetic dreams.  Her next one comes in "There's No Place Like Oz."








The Scarecrow and Tin-Man of Oz: Chapter I: Dorothy’s Christmas Tree


History: This is the first episode of W.W. Denslow’s Scarecrow and Tinman newspaper strip, drawn for the McClure Syndicate. Denslow was the illustrator of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.


Continuity notes:

Dating: This strip first appeared in the Minneapolis Journal on 12/10/1904. All evidence points to this story taking place during The Wonderful Wizard of Oz while the characters are in the Emerald City (the story mentions them at the Emerald Palace) for the second time (after having defeated the Wicked Witch), in which three days pass before the Wizard grants Dorothy her wish (as described in chapter XVI,) and is the only period in which this story can take place.  This gives readers a start and end date for The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, which takes place over the course of 52 days.  If December 24th falls on the 43d day of Dorothy's time in Oz, then the tornado struck Kansas and sent Dorothy to Oz on November 12th.










The Tin Castle of Oz


Story: An account of the way in which the Tin Woodman's Tin Castle was constructed, and the adventure that ensued when the Tin Woodman pursued tin cloth from the cocoons of the tintipillars.  Along the way, the he and the Scarecrow meet Mortimer Mix, a being created by Boq the Munchkin and brought to life by the Good Witch of the North to help keep the Yellow Brick Roads in good repair.  With the help of Timorous and some giant-sized mosquitoes (mentioned in The Emerald City of Oz), the Tin Woodman gets a new home in the Winkie country.


Continuity Notes:

Dating: The frame story in the prologue and epilogue occur some years later.  The flashback portions, which encompasses everything else, begins roughly twelve days after the events of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, around January 14th, 1900.


Road of Yellow Brick: It's here revealed that the Wicked Witch created the first Yellow Brick Road in an attempt to conquer the Wizard, a fact confirmed by Donald Abbott's "How the Wizard Came to Oz and What He Did There," and Paul Dana's The Magic Umbrella of Oz.


Wicked Witch's Castle: Though not revealed here, the Tin Woodman must have utilized the castle of the Wicked Witch of the West for a brief period (10 or so days), as Billina says in The Road to Oz that his "old castle was damp."






The Pearl and the Pumpkin


Continuity Notes: This Denslow title—his follow-up to The Wonderful Wizard of Oz—was brought into Oz continuity by Hugh Pendexter III in his book Wooglet in Oz, which serves as a sequel of sorts to this book, and features several characters from it.  The Pearl and the Pumpkin also features the Ancient Mariner as a character from the Samuel Taylor Coleridge poem The Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner, which brings that story into the larger saga, as well, and dates it to shortly over a hundred years prior, just before Coleridge penned the poem. 







The Magic Chest of Oz


Story: Two Munchkins accidentally release the living shadow of the Wicked Witch of the East (inadvertently created by the original), who with the help of the Hammerheads and their King Bluego, take over the Emerald City.  With the help of the Good Witch of the North, the Scarecrow, Lion and Tin Woodman seek out the Magic Chest.  Created by the Silver Shoes, it is the only thing that can contain the shadow of the witch.  The Imp Etuous is first introduced here and later appears in The Amber Flute of Oz


Continuity Notes:

Dating: Story takes place on Dec 26, 1900, a week prior to the first celebration of Dorothy Day.  This is established as a year to the day Dorothy left Oz (Jan 2nd, 1899).







The Speckled Rose of Oz


Story: When Poison Oak, a sapient tree from the Sulpher Swamp of the Wild Winkie Wilderness wishes to turn Oz into a swamp by magically destroying all its flowers, the Ozian heroes go on an adventure to save Oz.


During their travels they meet the daughter of the Man in the Moon, Lady Minerva Moonstruck, whose trying to her husband who left the moon after finding a talisman that gives him the power of shapeshifting.


Continuity notes:

Dating: Takes place on March 21st (the first day of spring in 1901) in the final year of the Scarecrow's reign.  Together, the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and Lion had celebrated the annual Flower Festival in the Emerald City the year before.


Family ties: The narrative underscores the idea that the West and East witches were, in fact, sisters, but also that they had a brother, Sir Wiley Gyle. 


Old Oz: Glinda reveals that Oz was gray prior to Lurline's enchantment. This has to be an indication of Enilrul's curse, as noted in The Witch Queen of Oz. She instructed her fairies to import flowers from around the world to Oz.









Father Goose in Oz


Story: Living somewhere in the Nonestic (or an adjacent ocean, e.g., the Nonentic or Rolantic), Father Goose's goose Bilkins, obsessed with The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (just released on May 17, 1900), uses a magic pen to whisk them to the Land of Oz.  There, they meet Dr. Pipt (the first chronological appearance of him), who introduces himself as Oswaldo Pipt. 


The pair come across kalidahs roaming near Boq's house in the land of Munchkins.  The kalidah king is called King Grumble.


They soon rescue the King of the Winged Monkeys, King Nikkalo (who must be the king at the time of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz). 


Continuity notes:

Royal lineage: King Nikkalo notes that his father was king before him, which means there is a line of succession  amongst the Winged Monkeys.  "Fiddle's Revenge" (Oziana 2010) refers to the King of the Winged Monkeys as King Tofu, which may be his successor, or indicate that Nikkalo was deposed (perhaps after being caught by a Kalidah and thought dead) or abdicated.  There may have been a coup, or Tofu might be a son or next of kin.


The Wicked Witch of the West: For the first time, the Wicked Witch of the West is magically resurrected by the power of the magic pen, and teams up with the Kalidah king to retrieve the pen and take over Oz.








The Amber Flute of Oz


Story: Five hundred years after his creation by Ozgood the Magnificent to protect Oz from outside evils, the Sand Serpent is restored to life by Blinkie, the former Wicked Witch of the South, to avenge herself upon Glinda who had taken away her knowledge of witchcraft. Driven from the Quadling Country, Glinda urges the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and Lion to team up with the rascally magician Ozwaldo, who they'd just defeated after his attempts to take over the Munchkin country, because he alone knows where his ancestor Ozgood hid the amber flute, the only thing that can put the Sand Serpent back to sleep.


Continuity notes:

Ebony: Blinkie's cat Ebony is called a Copycat, and displays powers similar to that of a Mimic, however, this is later discovered to be because of the power of a red ribbon which the cat wears.  What becomes of the magic ribbon is unknown, though it's possible Glinda has it.









Buffalo Dreams


Story: On September 14th, leaving the Omaha State Fair on his way to North Platte, Nebraska, to join up with Colonel Cody and the Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, Oscar Diggs gets off the train in Broke Plaw in order to make money.  There, he joins a small-time conman named Erikson, who runs the "Ghost of a Sitting Bill" attraction built around a purportedly talking buffalo.  On the second day, Oscar discovers that the bull, whose been mistreated and starved by Erikson, really does talk.  Oscar discovers that the buffalo is not the the spirit of Sitting Bull, but a former man named Jackson Priest, who when he got stuck in a blizzard, killed a buffalo and stayed warm inside its bowels.  But when he woke up, after having a dream in which Sitting Bull spoke to him of killing the last of the buffalo, he was the buffalo.  He was shortly afterwards captured by Erikson.  He asks Oscar to help him. 


The next day, Oscar gets the audience to feed the buffalo apples.  The buffalo, Priest, is grateful and tells Oscar to feed him for two more days when he'll be strong enough to break out.


The next day, however, Oscar is only able to get him a few pears, and doesn't make as much, and when Erickson shakes him down for what little he has, he's kicked out of town.  But that night, after having a dream, Oscar sneaks back to Priest's tent.  He attempts to knock out the guard, but the man screams, so Oscar grabs his gun and blasts open the door barring the buffalo.  Jumping on the buffalo's back, Oscar and Priest dash away and hide in the Nebraska prairie.  The pair travel together to North Platte, hoping to join the Wild West Show. 


A month later, on October 21st, the pair are working for Colonel Cody, who signed them up as soon as he saw them audition.  Now well-fed and free to move about, Priest becomes a popular attraction with the kids.  Omaha Jackson and his Trained Buffalo tour for two seasons in New York, Missouri, Philadelphia and Canada.   When they go to Omaha in August, two years after they met, Oscar is invited by his former employer George to go up in his old balloon again, but a Nebraska storm blows him away.


Continuity notes:

Dating: For this story to fit, the internal dates have to be seen as off by three years in each instance.  The text dates the story as beginning in September 14, 1896, and ending two years later in August 1898.  Those dates are impossible to reconcile, of course, as Oscar is still ruling from the Emerald City in Oz, and was there a long time before Dorothy showed up in 1898, having first arrived in Oz 1871 (see the notes for How the Wizard Came to Oz).  "Buffalo Dreams" functions well, however, as a depiction of Oscar's years after he returned to the Outside World at the end of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, in September 1899, when he resumed the career he had prior to coming to Oz, and before his second and final trip to Oz in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz in August of 1902.


This, of course, makes the story's dates off by three years, but it affords it a place on the timeline that is plausible within the historical events listed, e.g., the death of Sitting Bull (in 1890), and the tour of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show, which concluded in Omaha in 1902 before leaving for Europe.  Oscar's balloon trip at the end of this story, however, isn't the one that brings him to the Land of the Mangaboos in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, as he mentions in the latter story as having been working for Barnum & Bailey.  Rather, the finale of Buffalo Dreams leads him away from Buffalo Bill's show to Barnum & Bailey's Circus in Los Angeles, where he works for several months.  His involvement in "The Adventure of the Sinister Chinaman" places him in San Francisco before the end of this story.


Oscar's Age: Oscar is noted as being 40 years old.  As with the story's dates, this age is highly suspect.  In Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, he says he grew to be an old man in Oz.  40 might be considered old at that time, but given that he spent 30 years in Oz, this would imply that he didn't age in Oz.  Of course, Mailander's intent was that this take place before he first goes to Oz, but that would place this story in 1870, far too early for the events to have occurred (e.g., you can't have a "ghost" of Sitting Bull if Sitting Bull is alive and well).  See the notes for "The Adventure of the Sinister Chinaman" for a more likely possibility regarding Oscar's age as being 53.  Because this story is written in the first person, it must be assumed that when Oscar wrote this story (or told it), that he had his dates off, and didn't know the actual time that had passed while he was in Oz.






The Adventure of the Sinister Chinaman


Story: When an Asian magician is framed for kidnapping a young girl during his act, Sherlock Holmes, John Watson and Oscar Diggs work to uncover the truth and save the man from prison and lynching.


Continuity notes:

Dating: Author Barbara Hambly provides an exact date of June 7, 1901, a date that corresponds to the time Oscar Diggs was living and working in California after having left Oz in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz The text [p. 128, 138 and 144] incorrectly notes that he vanished in a ballooning accident in 1861 and lived in Fairyland for 40 years.  This is off by ten years, as he first arrived in Oz in 1871 (see the notes for How the Wizard Came to Oz) and remained there for 30 yearsThis discrepancy can be chalked up to historian error (either Watson's or Hambly's).  The text also says he vanished again the following years, in 1902.  This is correct and in accordance with the dating of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz.  


Sherlock Holmes and Watson: This is not the first story to be written to crossover Sherlock Holmes and the Oz series, but it is the first to occur chronologically, and it explains how the Wizard and Holmes know each other.  This indicates that later when they discovered Oz was real, Watson came to realize that the Oscar he first met was in fact the very same man as the one who vanished in a balloon in 1871, and that he wasn't delusional.  The later stories include "Sherlock Holmes in Oz," in Oziana 1971, "The Mystery of the Missing Ozma," in Oziana 1984, and "The Adventure of the Cat That Did Not Meow," in Oziana 1976.


Wicked Witch of the East: Oscar notes a previously untold battle he fought with the Wicked Witch of the East (or an untold incident during a known battle).  On page 136, he says: "Why, when I went into battle against the Wicked Witch of the East and her evil minions, she called darkness a thousand times more dreadful than this, just by pouring ink onto her mirror--"


The Wizard's Age: There are some questions concerning the age of Oscar Diggs, the Wizard of Oz.  In this story, Watson states that he discovered that he was 63 when he first left Omaha for Oz, and that he is that same age in 1901.  This is noteworthy, as it implies that the Wizard didn't age in Oz, and that he was already old when he went to Oz the first time.  Given that Watson (or Hambly) is off about the 1861 date by ten years, it can be argued that his age is also off by the same amount, and the text should read 53 instead of 63.  An additional monkey-wrench is thrown in by "Buffalo Dreams," in which he's said to be 40 in 1899.  In Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, Oscar states [p. 195-6] that "Over this Land I ruled in peace for many years, until I grew old and longed to see my native city once again."  That implies that he was either young or middle-aged when he vanished in a balloon from Omaha and grew old in Oz.  The text in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz calls him a "little old man" [45, 217]. Ozma invites him to stay, saying he's "too old to wander abroad and work in a circus." [197].  In "Buffalo Dreams," however, he notes that at 40 he's already "too old" to compete with the younger carnies who can be paid half as much, so Ozma's assertion can be understood in that context.  He is too old to wander the outside world and too old for the circus life.  Baum's suggestion that he's a little old man can also be understood in the context of his readers and protagonists, both of whom are quite young and for whom anyone out of their teens would be considered "old." 


Oscar might have felt after spending 30 years ruling in Oz that he "grew old," particularly in context with the rest of his statement that he "longed to see" his native city again.  On page 196, it's particularly notable that he discovered when returning home that "all of my old friends were dead or had moved away."  They had died because 30 years had passed.  Granted, some had moved away, but he doesn't know if they're alive or dead.  He does note that he joined the circus again, which is not something an old man could readily do, as noted correctly in "Buffalo Dreams," and yet he does.  So, there is evidence on both sides of the debate.  On the one, he refers to himself as having grown old in Oz, and being called a "little old man."  On the other side is the fact that upon returning to the outside world many of his old friends were dead, implying that he didn't age while they did, and he was able to get work in a field in which this was highly unlikely for anyone above 40. 


There is the question as to whether he could even have stayed young in a time before Ozma came to the throne and death was eradicated.  The answer is yes.  The kings and queens of Oz did not die.  Ozma's step-father Pastoria II, step-mother Cordia, grandfather Pastoria I, great-grandfather Ozroar (Ozandahan the Roarer) all lived for centuries on end.  This is because the center of Oz and its western quadrant were enchanted by Enilrul (and Lurline) to be deathless (as evidenced in The Witch Queen of Oz and by the long-lived lives of the Corabians, Corumbians and Samandrans of Thompson's tales).  When Oscar Diggs first comes to Oz, he took over Morrow, where Pastoria and Cordia had ruled.  He then builds the Emerald City even nearer to the center of Oz, and at an enchanted location. 


It is possible that he aged slowly in Oz, over the course of his time there.  It's also possible that at some point he stopped aging altogether (such as in 1892 when the Emerald City was finally completed).  It's also possible that he didn't age at all, and that only from the perspective of Dorothy and the readers, is he an "old" man.  Watson's perspective is that the man he and Holmes spent time with must be an impersonator of the real Oscar Diggs, since the man who vanished in the balloon accident would've be thirty years older.  Thus, in order for this story to work, Oscar Diggs cannot have aged, or cannot have aged much.


That leaves the question as to his age in both sources, 40 or 53?  (The 63 age is highly unlikely and as it must be adjusted according to the correction of the 1861 date, it is here being ruled out).  My speculation is that Mailander's "Buffalo Dreams," while accurate in its account, is off in all its years, including Oscar's age.  Despite his balding head, he may have looked younger, and passed for a forty-something year old man, but his actual age appears correctly to be 53, and this seems more appropriate given the majority of the illustrations made of him over the years.  This places his date of birth in the year 1818.








The Marvelous Land of Oz


The 2nd book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Story: When the witch Mombi decides her charge, a young boy named Tip must be changed into a statue, Tip runs away from home with Jack Pumpkinhead, who he's just brought to life with a magical potion called the Powder of Life, and the Sawhorse, who he also brings to life.  On their journey, they meet with the Wogglebug, a former normal-sized bug who was magnified on a screen by Professor Nowitall, at which time he becomes human sized, and goes off (see "The Wogglebug's New Clothes" for an expansion of his origin story).   The Scarecrow and Tin Woodman also meet up with Tip and his friends, but they have problems of their own. 


A disgruntled female citizen of Oz, General Jinjur has decided to rule Oz, and has brought her army of girls, called the Army of Revolt, to take over the Emerald City.  The Queen of the Field Mice intervenes on behalf of her old friends, but Jinjur still holds the palace. 


Together, the friends create the Gump out of the head of a moose, two sofas, the tail from a broom, and palm fronds for wings.  With the Powder of Life, he's brought to life, and flies them away from the Emerald City.  They crash in a jackdaws' nest, where the Scarecrow loses all his hay to the jackdaws, but stuffs himself with all the cash they find in the nest.  There, they also find magic wishing pills, which they use to help them get to Glinda the Good in the south.  Glinda informs them that the legitimate ruler of Oz is a girl named Ozma, who was hidden away by the Wizard. 


Mombi, meanwhile, has teamed up with General Jinjur, as the most expedient way of getting Tip back.  Yet, when Glinda's forces arrive, they depose her, and Mombi transforms herself into a rose, which the Tin Woodman puts on his lapel.  Glinda discovers Mombi's trick, but Mombi transforms herself into a black ant, and then into a large Griffin, which runs across the Deadly Desert (apparently the Griffin can withstand the desert's destructive qualities).  Glinda catches her aboard the Sawhorse (who the Deadly Desert also apparently has no affect on). 


Mombi is forced to reveal the truth about Ozma.  The Wizard gave her to him as a baby.  She transformed him into the boy Tip.  With Ozma revealed and reluctantly disenchanted from the form of Tip, Oz once again has its rightful ruler.  The Wogglebug is made public educator, the Gump is taken apart, with the head placed back on the wall, and Mombi is stripped of magic (though Tip promised to provide for her in her old age).  General Jinjur is arrested, but allowed to leave the Emerald City with her army.


Continuity notes:

Dating: The events take place over the course of 13 days (see The Chronology of Oz) in mid-to-late October 1901.  The month is determined by the fact that Tip has just completed harvesting the corn, and is selecting ripe pumpkins, one of which he uses to make Jack Pumpkinhead.  Although recognized as the rightful ruler of Oz, and serving as Princess-Elect (or more accurately as Princess Designate), due to the standard interregnum period, Ozma is not anointed ruler until six months later in July 1902 (the month is designated by Dick Martin in the 1965 Ozmapolitan, the month and year in the 1904 Ozmapolitan).  Ozma's disenchantment at the end of this book is established as being the first period in the 1904 Ozmapolitan, although the first official year of Ozma's reign begins after her coronation in July of the following year.  For a more detailed chronology of this book alongside the other early Oz books, see the Appendices: Dating the Early Oz Books which details the establishment of 1902 as the correct date.   


Déja Vu: Baum reuses the jackdaw scenario in the Queer Visitors strips, which is so close to the original as to be likely apocryphal.


Gump:   The Gump returns again for the Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz strips, then again in The Blue Emperor of Oz, and in his own book, The Astonishing Tale of the Gump of Oz, where he searches out what became of the sofas, broom and palm fronds brought to life by the Powder of Life. 


Jinjur: Jinjur marries and retires to write her notes in "Jinjur's Journal."  She doesn't stay married long, as noted in "Four Views of General Jinjur," yet she appears to reconcile with her husband later on.


Mombi: Mombi appears across the spectrum of Oz stories, as her actions as the Wicked Witch of the North, as well as her own purposes apart from the designs of the Compass Witches, were manifold.  She is responsible for abducting and transforming the entire Royal Family.  Mombi is powerful, yet complex, and not entirely evil.  She is shown to be executed in The Lost King of Oz, however, this later proves to have been a ruse in "Executive Decisions" and "Thy Fearful Symmetry" from Oziana 38.  Mombi's own journal is due to be published in the future, though a segment of it is available in Oziana 2015's "The Malevolent Mannequin in Oz."  Mombi's childhood and back-story, along with her true nature, will be published in the upcoming story, "The Gillikin Witches of Oz."


Ozma/Tip: The full story of Ozma/Tip's enchantment is revealed piecemeal, first in a distorted version of Dr. Nikidik's, provided in The Master Crafters of Oz.  The actual event that occurred is revealed in The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Books 1 and 2.  Jack Snow's A Murder in Oz would seem to contradict this, but Jeff Rester's upcoming Death Comes to Oz reconciles the accounts.


Professor Nowitall: Prior to Jinjur's Army of Revolt attacking the Emerald City, Mombi had demanded that Professor Nowitall give her his magnifying screen, which had enlarged the Wogglebug, so that she could enlarge Jinjur's army and take the palace.  When he refused and destroyed it, she transformed him into a creature with the head of a tiger and body of a large serpent, casting him in the Gillikin River with a spell that only she could undo.  There, as the creature Magenta, he forgot who he was.  Mombi also transported his wife Ima into a ring.  80 years later, Magenta returns in Bucketheads in Oz.  In Eureka in Oz, Professor Nowitall's son, Professor Nowitall (Jr.) who had been the one teaching class when his father's magnifying screen magnified the Wogglebug is approached by Eureka in his quiet abode, where he teaches her proper Oz manners.  Professor Nowitall Sr.'s first name is revealed here to be Donti. 


Roads: As Glinda's army passes from her castle in the Quadling Country to the Emerald City seemingly without problem, there appears to be a new roadway in place past the Hammerheads.  This is acknowledged as having taken place in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz.  J.L. Bell, on the BCF Pumperdink forum (for Lucky Bucky in Oz), points out that: "Once Glinda had formed an alliance with the Scarecrow, she may have felt safe enough to clear the way for a better road between her castle and the Emerald City. When the city's ruler was a wizard she didn't trust, and other wicked rulers lived north of her castle as well, she may not have wanted there to be an easy route to her home."


Wogglebug's Physiognomy: There is a discrepancy of the Wogglebug having two arms (as drawn by Neill here) as opposed to four (as drawn by Walt McDougall and Ike Morgan, and described by Baum in Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz and The Wogglebug Book).  "The Woggle-bug's New Clothes," Oziana 1987, indicates that the Wogglebug started out with four arms.  "The Eldritch Horror of Oz," Oziana 1981, indicates that he'd cut them off so as to appear less insectoid.


Dr. Nikidik and Dr. Pipt: For detailed information on the discrepancy between the two kcrooked magicians, see the Appendices










The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1: The Disenchanted Princess of Oz


History: Putting into context some of the dangling plot threads and mysteries from the canonical Oz series, alongside a new narrative focusing on the adventures of Tippetarius and the Flying Sorcerer Zim Greenleaf, this book and its two successors that make up The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz trilogy are considered deuterocanonical works by The Royal Timeline of Oz.


Story: Young Princess Amalea of Lostland finds herself transformed into a boy.  He gets a sudden beating from Maroc, the head gardener, who thinks he's a thief and takes him to the dungeon.  Seeing his pointed Elfin ears, the lockups Marjon and Miggs ask him if he's a fairy, but he doesn't know.  Disturbed and worried, he asks to see his family's loyal servant Faraq, who he knows will help him.  But concerned that the fairy boy will bring the wrath of the fairies upon them, particularly if King Whippetarius has him executed (the penalty for stealing from the garden), one of the lockups gives him a knapsack and lamp and leads him to the deepest part of the dungeon where there is a trapdoor and an old sign that reads: "To the Land of Oz." 


Although Lostland is in the Munchkin Country, it is cut off from the surrounding realms by a bottomless gulf and steep mountains.  There is a single pass through the mountains, which few known even exist.  It is, according to legend how the first Lostlanders entered the region from the northeast Munchkin country, fleeing from the rapacious Rimmers. Having heard good things of the magical realm, the former princess decides he will look upon this as an adventure and find a way to get disenchanted.  He follows the tunnel, which branches right and left.  The right one ends at a hole just above the bottomless gulf.  Retreating, he takes the left, which after some miles leads to a door with a bell.  There, he meets an innkeeper named Igvan and her husband Blik who insists that all who escape from Lostland have to work to eat.  He introduces himself as Amadin, and finds that he's handier with an axe than he thought he would be (having never before worked).  Igvin tells Amadin that he's in the Seven Blue Mountains of Oz and that there are several good wizards and witches in the region, such as Ganalan, Brown Bleegum, Maggie, Vega and the Green Knight.  Looking at his new face in the mirror, he's struck by his resemblance to his mother. 


Determined to find one of the good magic-workers, he leaves the inn the next day and walks towards the Seven Blue Mountains until he finds a farmhouse where he offers work for food.  He meets the farmhands Om, Strom and Grom, who nickname him Dinny.  He works with them for two months until heading off to find the good witch Maggie who he discovers lives in a cottage nearby.  After explaining his situation to her, Maggie checks in her magic mirror to confirm his story, and reveals to him that this is indeed his true form.  Dinny is distraught, but Maggie concedes to change his pointed ears into standard human ones. 


Later at a village fair, he sees the good wizard Vega perform, but he vanishes before he can meet him and Dinny decides it's time to move on.  Traveling around the base of Mount Lapis Lazuli, he finds a tunnel leading to a blue cave filled with bats trying to sleep.  One of the bats tells him that some of the passages lead to a city and Dinny proceeds through.  But he soon gets lost as the tunnels fork and split, and then his lamp goes out.  After many miles of stumbling and groping and starving, Dinny at last finds a passageway leading up and up, narrowing until it ends at a stone that Dinny pushes away to reveal the light. 


He emerges at the slope of the blue mountain in a carefully tended orchard in which each bush and tree has a plaque with the name of the tree in Latin.  Hungrily, he eats some berries, but they cause him to shrink.  Shocked by this sudden turn of events, and concerned that birds might eat him, he carries a dead leaf over his head as he searches for food and a place to sleep. 


The next day, Dinny meets some butterflies who tell him about the man who tends the garden.  Fashioning swords out of thorns, Dinny searches and finds an ordinary garden where he helps himself to a strawberry.  Before nightfall he locates a magic orchard and greenhouse.  The next day he meets a young toad and tells him that he didn't hatch, but was born 28 years ago.  The toad's mother tells him he's in the garden of a sorcerer.  Dinny befriends her children. 


The next day he finally gets a glimpse of the sorcerer, a slender and tall man with upswept green hair.  As Dinny decides how to approach him, a preying mantis takes an interest in him.  Dinny runs to Zim's house, and leaves a message for him in twigs: HELP.  He waits atop a rock, but an approaching snake convinces him to climb a nearby plant instead.  Zim sees the messages, but walks inside just as the snake finds Dinny.  Zim returns in time to save Dinny and scold the snake.  He confirms Amadin's story in his magic mirror, and informs Dinny that he can undo the effects of the berry micromorphosa pessim, named after the man who discovered them on Pessim's Island (The Scarecrow of Oz), and who also discovered macromorphosa pessim, which Zim uses to make Dinny large again. 


Confirming in his mirror that the boy is faithful and true, and that Dinny truly has no place to go, Zim offers him a position working in his arboretum and going to market for him.  He places two conditions on him: that he never reveal Zim or the location of his garden-home, and that if he wishes to leave his service he must consent to letting him blot out his memory.  Dinny gladly agrees and comes learns much about this strange, but kindhearted sorcerer, who he discovers the next day maintains several tricks for keeping the Seven Blue Mountains safe from evil.  For his part, Dinny proves to be a good assistant and helper, and Zim reveals to him his many forms, including that of Brown Bleegum, a bearded dwarf-wizard; Ganalan, a free-spirited young wizard; Rooster, a strong-man fruits and vegetable dealer; Vega, a melancholy minstrel; the red-headed Green Knight, and Winkle a crusty seaman.  In each of these forms, Dinny is also given an alter-ego and new shape to wear so as to protect Zim from being discovered.  They travel through a magic portal to the various locations where each of these wizards do business.


In their adventures, they help disenchant princess Gladia from an elephant back to her normal self; they help the Withy Girls who've declared independence from men, and rescue Prince Jamine Saxon from the witch Eereesa who turned him into a strawberry that his sister accidentally ate.  Along the way, Dinny discovers that Zim has one major phobia, a terrifying fear of giants.


One day, Zim (as Brown Bleegum) brings Dinny to his home country of Lostland, where he reveals to his mother, Queen Jolanna, that he is her son/daughter Amalea.  Jolanna explains that after Tippetarius was born, she and her loyal servant Faraq sought out a witch to transform the baby boy into a girl.  The Queen feared that her husband, King Whippetarius, who had nine sons already, would make good on his threat to murder her and the baby if she produced another son.  While Bleegum is there, it becomes known that Faraq had recently fallen into a glassworks and reemerged as a glass man.  To punish him for some perceived slight, King Whip forced him to travel each day up a narrow flight of stairs, until at last he slipped and shattered.  Faraq's mother gathered up the pieces, hoping against hope that some magic worker could one day repair him. She now gives those shards to Brown Bleegum, who takes them with him. 


Over six months of piecing Faraq together, at last Zim is able to return him to life.  Not only that, but he restores him to his human self.  Faraq and his mother are overjoyed when they return.  And to ensure that the king behaves, Bleegum enchants him so that if he delivers any unjust punishment, it will instead fall upon him instead of his victim.  In order to spend time with his mother again, Dinny is transformed into the form of a different boy who Faraq claims as an apprentice.  Yet, doing so puts him under the heels of his brothers, who take pleasure in tormenting him.  After he gets some small revenge on them, the king has him put in the dungeon, where he once again goes through the tunnel into Oz and back to the home of Brown Bleegum, where Dinny again resumes his form and apprenticeship to Zim.


30th year of Ozma's reign: Dinny and Zim travel to the Green Mountain to the dwarf kingdom of Carrock.  Disguised as Brown Bleegum, Zim asks the king's brother, the Regent Keern, where King Velas is.  Keern tells him that he's been missing for three centuries along with the Wishing Necklaces that King Velas's best friend the Wizard Wam (Wammerian Hadrakis) made for him to give to his bride-to-be, the Wood Nymph Lorna (The Wishing Horse of Oz).  Neither King Velas, Lorna or the Wishing Necklaces were ever seen again.


Bleegum agrees to help find the king.  He confides to Dinny that the good witch Maggie told him that King Velas was enchanted.  They discuss theories, including one that implicates Lorna.  But no one but Velas knows where her grove is and the homes of Wood Nymph are difficult to find.  Bleegum's compass, however, is able to lead them to King Velas.  But their guard and escort Glundquist insists on accompanying them as they follow the compass to the king's room, where they are forbidden to enter.  Glundquist leaves and returns with Lindquan who tells them that he saw Regent Keern addressing someone in that room named Velas.  So, with a spell of invisibility, the four enter the king's room.  The compass then points to a pond.  Dinny enters and finds King Velas in the form of a bullfrog.  The frog explains that indeed Lorna transformed him into that form when she first got the Wishing Necklaces 300 years ago, and his brother took advantage of it to rule in his stead.  Bleegum transforms him back into his true form.  Garbing himself in kingly raiment, King Velas returns to his throne room and summons his brother, banishing him from the realm for 300 years. 


The next day after the celebration, King Velas leads Bleegum and Dinny to the woodland dwelling of Lorna the Wood Nymph.  When she appears, Bleegum tosses a powder into her face that transforms her into a frog.  Lorna explains that the Wishing Necklaces are long gone, but Bleegum reproves her for what she did to Velas and says she will remain in this new form until she changes her treacherous nature.


32nd year of Ozma's reign: Bleegum drops Dinny off at Maggie's while he goes to see what harm the evil witch Wunchie has been causing.  But Wunchie spots Dinny first and strikes her Magic Hammer, summing Himself the Elf to take Dinny to the worst place under the earth.  Maggie hears Dinny's cries and tries to stop the Elf, but only manages to snatch some of his beard.  Before he disappears under the earth, Dinny manages to tell Maggie what Wunchie said.  Maggie pursues her, but she flees back to her home in the Munchkin Mountain.   When she sees Bleegum, Maggie informs him what happened.  He in turn informs her that Wunchie's been busy.  She turned the Trirulers into stone, imprisoned the Eggazons in a bubble, sent black bees to Luckskee, and put a spell of sneezing upon the Askerins.  Wunchie has furthered threatened that if Bleegum and Maggie don't stop interfering in her business, she'll do much more! 


Bleegum knows the Hammer Elf is Wunchie's main source of power, but he can't stop him without a personal item of his.  Maggie then remembers the beard she cut off him.  So, the pair recite the spell that prevents Himself the Elf from entering the Seven Blue Mountains.  Wunchie, meanwhile, sends Himself off to kill King Hargree of Lonlee, but grows furious when she finds out the elf is unable to enter the region no matter what he tries.  Zim proceeds to undo all of Wunchie's spells, and then goes in search of Dinny.  The boy turns up in the Vegetable Kingdom of the Mangaboos, but when Zim next checks his records, he's gone.


Dinny, meanwhile, has tried to escape from the beautiful but emotionless Mangaboos, but to little avail.  They capture him and cover him with the Cloak of Darkness to try and destroy him.  The cloak had been the Wizard of Oz's from the time he ventured into this region (Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz).  When it fails to kill Dinny, the boy escapes again.  Thinking how he might stop their pursuit of him, he recites the spell that Zim had used to repair Faraq, and succeeds in repairing parts of their Glass City.  This causes them to take pause, and the Prince deems him a wizard and decides to spare his life for the time.  Dinny explains that he's merely a wizard's apprentice, but the prince says he may live long enough to repair their city, after which he can choose his choice of death: the black pit or the twining vines. 


Two guards, who Dinny names Cherub and Flax, step up to ensure he harms no one and that no harm comes to him, particularly from the sorcerer Dwig.  Dinny goes about making repairs and learning about their culture, and gives each of his guards a gift.  The Mangaboos are shocked to know how long meat people live.  The next day, at the Weeding Out, it's Dinny's turn to be shocked, as he sees how the Mangaboos revere beauty and condemn ugliness to the destruction of the Twining Vines.  Only the beautiful are allowed to be planted for descendents, with the sole exception for those with a talent, like their sorcerers.  Dinny also gets to see how young, growing Mangaboos are taught while they grow on their stalks at the Folk Gardens.  Dinny asks to see the Black Pit, and later, when he comes before the Prince, the Prince offers him a third option: to drink of the potion prepared by their sorcerer and become one of them.  Dinny refuses that option and asks instead to be taken to the Black Pit. 


Once he is placed inside, with the entrance blocked up by stones, he uses magic to create a light for himself.  He's surprised to find the body of a young Mangaboo who had been thrown in the Black Pit some time earlier.  Suddenly, the Mangaboo boy speaks.  Dinny's light revived him from near-death.  He'd been considered mad and given the name Gilo.  The Mangaboos threw him in the Pit when he refused to toss a friend into the Twining Vines, and unlike others of his kind, Gilo feels emotional pain and loss.  Dinny explains what a heart is and says it seems like he has something like it.  Gilo wants it removed, and Dinny agrees to take him to see Zim. 


On their journey, Dinny comes to see how valuable the Mangaboos' suns are to them and how the Cloak and Black Pit mean death to them because they shield them from the sun.  The tunnel leads them to the Valley of Voe, where an invisible girl offers them the dama fruit which renders them invisible, a necessary preventative to keep them safe from the invisible bears that stalk the region.  Yet, as Gilo can't eat, the girl brings him to her home where her father Ianu puts him on the roof where he can get light and be kept safe from the bears.  Ianu recalls the time the Wizard and his companions had come through there (in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz).  He directs Dinny to a tunnel on Pyramid Mountain, where once lived the Wooden Gargoyles, which he believes are all extinct due to a fire or were later killed by the people of Voe when they entered their country.  The family packs food for Dinny and sprays dama-fruit juice on Gilo so that he becomes invisible.  Departing, Dinny and Gilo come to a stream, where they follow Ianu's instructions and rub a large-leafed plant on their feet, enabling them to walk on water and better avoid the bears.


Once at Pyramid Mountain they follow the tunnel which spirals up inside it.  Dinny collects a windowpane with a seemingly magic glass for Zim.  In a wide cavern they come across the charred remains of the former Gargoyle country.  Dinny realizes that the Wizard must have lit the fire to escape and that the Wooden Gargoyles fanned its flames trying to put it out, spreading it and causing a greater conflagration.  Departing from there they come into another large chamber filled with treasure of all kinds.  They pocket a few diamonds, but as they exit through the dark curving tunnel they hear a roar and retreat back to the treasure room to hide.  A few baby dragons come through followed by their mother.  Waiting till they pass into their den, they depart for the cavern nearest the surface, but a large boulder blocks their path to the surface.  Then they hear the dragon approaching.  Just in time, Zim shows up and pushes the boulder aside.  Zim addresses the dragon Hadasse, who insists on eating him, so Zim shrinks her down to a foot-long size and opts to keep her as a pet to light his pipe.  Her dragonette children are reduced to manageable mouse-sized dragons, which despite her pleading and claims to have come from the Green Dragon of Atlantis, he puts inside a cage.  Zim then speaks with Gilo and brings them back to the treasure room where the Mangaboo finds the Stone of Soames, which answers any one question per person once a century.  Dinny asks about who enchanted and disenchanted him, and learns that it was Mombi.  Zim asks it how to cure his gigantophobia, but it gives a cryptic answer about having to "meet its reverse."


Zim confirms to Gilo that he is not mad, but compassionate, and deserves to be planted with the one he loves.  Dinny suggests taking him to Oz, but Zim reminds him that plants die in Oz, even sapient ones.  Nor can he restore his humanity as he did with Faraq because he was never human.  Dinny suggests planting him in his garden, but Zim is unsure what he'd do with his offspring if they don't wish to stay, and he's aware that the Mangaboos will only execute them if they prove to be like their father.  Dinny recommends experimenting on the whole race to give them compassion and love, but Zim realizes that because they're so short-lived, they'll only spend their time in mourning.  So Dinny suggests he give them longer life.  Zim ponders this, but says he won't do anything to them without their consent.  Dinny feels they may allow it for the opportunity to live longer. 


The next day, Zim examines the windowpane Dinny got for him, and tells him that it's a tangible hole (though he doesn't know it, it was made by the Braided Man).  Zim flies them to Boboland, where Dinny offers Prince Bobo the shrunken dragons, which he takes for pets, save for their mother.  Bobo is glad to know the Dragon of the Peaks has at last been vanquished.  Dinny also informs him of the treasure horde, which Bobo promises to restore to their rightful owners. 


Zim and Dinny then fly to the Rose Kingdom (Tik-Tok of Oz).  While they normally refuse strangers in their land, Zim knows that they will welcome anyone who comes in the name of Omiarr, the fairy man who is the ancestor of the sapient Rosebushes in that kingdom.  He had been enchanted into a rosebush by an evil wizard who'd been angry with him for not helping him conquer Mo.  As the wizard was later killed by a knight, Omiarr remained in that form for a century, giving forth seeds which became a vegetable man and woman.  Omiarr was later found again by Lulea and returned to the Forest of Burzee, though his offspring continue to grow and live in the Rose Kingdom.  Zim soon greets the Rose King Filamore, who is fresh off the bush and happy to see them, but his subjects threaten to kill them if they enter.  The Gardener confirms that they cannot enter, but Zim proclaims that they come in the name of Omiarr.  None have done so in a century and they then welcome them.  They are fascinate by Gilo who is so like and yet unlike them, and are eager to learn more about him.  While the Roses will not let Gilo be planted there, the king will allow Zim to take their pollen to plant with Gilo in his arboretum on the condition that if he's successful in giving the Mangaboos longer life he must in turn give it to them.  Gilo consents to being planted and pollinated with the Roses, but wishes it could have been Oris he was planted with. 


The next day Zim brings them to his conservatory and Gilo is amazed at the variety of plant life there and is soon planted before he spoils any further.  Zim returns to Voe and the Vegetable Kingdom and brings with him a piece of Oris, which he plants alongside Gilo. 


A year later, both plants grow side by side, Rosa from the Mangarose bush and Floris from the Oris bush.  These vegetable women prove helpful and curious, and after another year a bush blooms from the Mangarose who Zim names Gilrose.  He also proves gentle and kind.


10 years later: A decade after Dinny and Zim first visited the Vegetable and Rose Kingdoms, Floris blooms.   Zim reveals to Dinny that he's changed things so that the sapient beings that grow are no longer the mere fruit of the bushes, which are byproduct of the bushes, but the object of the bushes themselves, and will live and meet their own descendents.  Zim returns again to the Rose Kingdom and learns that King Filamore is about to be replaced by the new king.  He is depressed because he is to be planted and doesn't want to die.  Zim suggests he leave the Rose Kingdom and become mortal, which he agrees to, but his subjects won't let him leave, as they want his descendents.  Zim makes a flower grow out of Filamore and uses it to pollinate the growing bushes so that Filamore will have plenty of descendents.  With that, his subjects allow him to depart.  Filamore goes on to become a sailor and gardener, marry and have a family.  Zim, meanwhile, returns home to pollinate his growing Mangarose bushes with Filamore's pollen.


A year later, Floris has her descendent and Rosa starts to bloom.  Zim decides its time again to visit the Mangaboos, and the three plant-people are excited to meet their relatives.  They come before the princess, but she prefers to speak in the company of her sorcerers, Davig and the twin female sorceresses (a new phenomenon for the Mangaboos) Twig and Branch.  They each in turn try to defeat Zim with their magic, but he comes out ahead and finally brings forth a cloud of darkness which so frightens the princess that she promises that no harm will befall them.  Zim withdraws the cloud and tells the princess his offer to bring them long life.  She's interested, but asks what the cost is.  He says that if they are to have an extended life they should enjoy it.  They must feel.  The princess concedes.


75th year of Ozma's reign: Zim sees good on his plan to collect marine specimens for the tanks he built below his arboretum.  Taking the form of Winkle, the crusty seaman, and for Dinny his assistant Oni, they traverse to Noland's seas with a magical sphere that shrinks specimens for transport.  With a potion of the Sea Fairies, Winkle turns them into merman.  Exploring an old wreck, Winkle tells Oni of the time Wammerian was put inside a chest by pirates and thrown overboard.  After a long time, the Sea Fairies rescued him, and he spent time amongst them, helping them, and even rescuing one from a sea devil and healing her wounds.  In gratitude they gave him the potion they just used to become mermen.  Winkle won't say, however, how he attained it, and when they spot sea fairies, they're forced to hide until they pass. 


The next month, off the coast of Rinkitink, Winkle finds the cave Zim discovered in his Perpetually Updating Atlas, and creates a portal there.  But as they're exploring, a giant electric sea slug enters, and distracted, Oni doesn't realize until too late that he's been swallowed by a shark!  Oni pokes him with his knife and the shark spits him out, explaining that he was saving him from the sea slug.  Introducing himself as Big Mouth, named for having the biggest mouth of all the big-mouth sharks, they circle round to rescue Winkle.  Winkle hopes Aquareine can do something about the electric sea slug, but the shark explains that no one, not even King Anko, can escape getting shocked by the creature, who mysteriously appeared in the sea one day.  Even while sleeping, he sends out electric currents.  Yet, he and the queen are reluctant to use violence until they know for a certainty that the creature's evil.  After much deliberation, Winkle decides to try a storm spell on the sea slug, though he's uncertain what will occur.  It produces wild colors that the sea slug thinks are pretty. 


When Winkle confronts him, the creature tells him he thinks the Sea Fairies are dancing when he vibrates near them, and he doesn't realize it's hurting them.  Big Mouth and Aquareine arrive and overhear this.  The creature explains that he grew up on magic marine skosh, which made him giant sized and electrical.  Aquareine then changes him so that instead of electric current, he produces electric light, and she welcomes him to light up her city every night.  The sea slug loves how pretty he now looks, and Aquareine invites everyone to her palace. 


The sea fairy Clia inquires how Winkle learned his storm magic, and he tells her it was from an inter-dimensional traveler.  At dinner, Aquareine asks him directly how he obtained Wammerian's potion when he promised never to divulge it.  Winkle explains that when the Wizard Wam disappeared, he left his books to him, and from them he learned the spell.  Aquareine admits she knows they're not who they seem, but also knows they're not evil.  Winkle tells her he won't divulge that information as he doesn't want to be famous.  The Sea Fairy Queen accepts this, and allows him to return to her domain and harvest the sea orchids and other unique flora.  Later, Oni asks how he got the potion from Wammerian, and Winkle admits that the Wizard Wam was his father.  Thinking on that, Dinny later tells Zim that the Wishing Necklaces belong to him by right, and Zim notes that they cost his father and him half their magical powers.  If he could merely touch them, it would help him regain his full powers.


77th year of Ozma's reign: Zim's marine plant collection grows as Winkle and Oni make a dozen trips to Aquareine's underwater garden.  Amongst their collection is the prized sea orchids and sea tales from a sea book tree.  One day while dining, they start turning into merman, and just make it to the lotus pool in time.  Zim realizes the spell has given them a 13th free use in a baker's dozen.


Continuity Notes:

Dating: This saga spans over the course of 80 years beginning in October 1901 during the conclusion of The Marvelous Land of Oz, beginning when Ozma is first disenchanted at the end of that book, then moving to the first year of Ozma's reign (up to chapter 9), the third year (chapter 10), the fifth year (chapter 13), eleventh year (chapter 14-19), 30th year (chapter 20), 32nd year (chapter 21-25, page 260), 33d-34th year (chapters 25-26, page 264), 41st-42nd years (chapter 26), and then jumps up her 75th year (chapter 27-end).


Dragons: The dragonettes are first encountered in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz. Their mother, the she-dragon here named Hadasse, is called by Prince Bobo of Boboland the Dragon of the Peaks.  Zim shrinks her to a foot length and opts to keep her as a pet to light his pipe.  Her baby dragons are reduced to mouse-size and gifted to Prince Bobo.  In 1983 (The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 3: Zim Greenleaf of Oz), Zim is convinced by the Love Fairy, Amouretto of Amouré, that it was wrong to enslave Hadasse and give away her children as pets.  So, Zim returns them to where he believes it is safe.  Whether he determines that their original home was safe, or they returned their on their own is unknown, but  58 years hence, in Ruggedo in Oz, the dragonettes are back to their former size and living in their original home again.  One of them, Vdoxo, remembers Eureka from the first time she visited. 


Insects: Zim confirms that "Some insects in Oz can talk, but few can write." (page 60)


Mangaboos: The Mangaboo culture, first detailed in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, is further explored.  Mangaboos do not eat, and only feed on soil while they are growing on their stalks.  Eating is considered disgusting, and they grow their fruits and vegetables purely for aesthetic purposes.  Amongst some known ones are towors and yiktas.  Their buildings also grow, and broken parts are planted to become new buildings.  There are jobs to be done in the Vegetable Kingdom, and some are more prestigious than others (window washing is prestigious because it brings them to the higher levels).  They do not have personal names.  The higher their dwelling the more sun they gain, but most do not get past the 10th level.  Their lifespan from the time they're picked is five years.  Though they cannot move or speak while growing, they can hear and learn, and teachers read them the laws of the kingdom.  Ugliness is a capital offense, with those born imperfect allowed to live, but given to the Twining Vines to destroy at the end, and not planted again.  This is called the Weeding Out, and is done to preserve the beauty of their race.  A worse punishment called Peeling is also done.  Their six suns are named Midron, Firenth, Wichtar, Augreth, Imton and Kizrioth.  That the rulers of the Vegetable Kingdom later show up at King Evardo's 60th birthday party (in The Tired Tailor of Oz) shows that Zim's experiments with making them less violent proved successful.  Another trip to the Vegetable Kingdom is made by the Wizard, Dorothy and Eureka in Ruggedo in Oz, where they meet Queen Ssyr and discover a far less hostile community than the one they first encountered in 1902.


Rimmers: One of the ancient inhabitants of Oz who used to raid the lands to the south.  See The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 2: Tippetarius in Oz.


Seven Blue Mountains: Also known as the King's Crown, it is located south of the Headlands (in the Gillikin country) but northeast of Keretaria in the Munchkin country.  It is southwest of Lostland, which connects to the region via a single pass in the Forbidden Mountains.  The seven mountains are each named.  The largest one in the middle is Mount Sapphire, the northernmost one is Mount Turquoise, then going around from the right are Mount Aquamarine, Mount Azurite, Mount Sodalite, Mount Lapis Lazuli and Mount Iolite.


Switcheroo Spell: Although it's generally believed that Mombi didn't perform the switcheroo spell until 1892 when she obtained a year-old Ozma, the fact that she was petitioned by the Queen of Lostland to transform her baby boy into a girl while he was still an infant means that when Mombi performed the switcheroo spell between Ozma and Tip (which she could do from a distance), the baby Ozma was still under the Wizard's care.  This happened in either 1887 or earlier in 1873, depending on when exactly Tippetarius was born (see below).  The Wizard was either informed of the baby's mysterious sex change and puzzled at it, or the child's governess feared to mention it to him.


Tippetarius: As a baby, Prince Tippetarius of Lostand was transformed into a girl by Mombi at the behest of his mother, whose husband King Whippetarius threatened to kill the child if it wasn't born a girl.  The mother named her now-daughter Princess Amalea.  The form she took was that of Ozma's, as Mombi performed a "switcheroo" spell between the two children.  Ozma then took on the form of Tippetarius, and with it the name Tip.  Nine years later, when Tip was disenchanted back into her original female form as Ozma, Princess Amalea was also disenchanted back into his original body of Tip.  Confused, he escaped Lostland, and took on the name Amadin, and eventually was nicknamed Dinny.  There appears to be a discrepancy with Tip's age.  He notes his age in chapter 4 (page 44) as 28, which means that he was born in 1873.  However, in chapter 26 (page 273), which takes place in 1943*, he identifies his age as 56 years old, which places his birth-date in 1887.  This is a 14 year difference that has to be chalked up to historian error, as Dinny would have no reason to lie about his age to either person.  This is an important date, as well, because it reveals when Mombi performed the switcheroo spell on baby Ozma.  Currently, the Royal Timeline of Oz goes with the age provided in chapter 26, which gives us the 1887 date, five years before the Wizard actually gave the baby into Mombi's keeping. 


Wooden Gargoyles: Although Dinny believes the gargoyles to be extinct due to the fire the Wizard caused during his visit (in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz), which destroyed much of their realm, and Ianu says the survivors who fled into Voe were killed by its inhabitants, in fact, several Wooden Gargoyles did escape, as evidenced by The Braided Man in Oz and Ruggedo in Oz.  By the time, the Wizard returns to the city in the latter story (in 1991, fifty-eight years after this story), it is rebuilt and repopulated.


Wizard Wam: The narrative gives his proper name as Wammerian Hadrakis, and hints that he's an inter-dimensional travel.  He's also the father of Zim the Flying Sorcerer.  Wam made the Wishing Necklaces, missing at the time of this story, but later discovered in The Wishing Horse of Oz, which drained him of half his power, as well as half of his son's.


Wunchie and the Magic Hammer: This story provides a date for Handy Mandy in Oz at 1935, and gives a role to the witch Wunchie who was named, but never appears in the latter work.  So too, it expands on the character of Himself the Elf, who is shown to not want to do the evil things that Wunchie commands him through the Hammer.  The history of the Hammer itself is given in The Silver Sorceress of Oz.


Zim: The son of the Wizard Wam, and technically over 3000 years old (in 1944, p. 273), the eight foot two inch Zim Greenleaf is the Flying Sorcerer of Oz, who secretly lives upon Mount Azurite in the Seven Blue Mountains of the Munchkin Country.  An ardent botanist, as well as a sorcerer, he maintains a giant conservatory in which he grows numerous plants and trees from all over Oz.  In order to help people and yet maintain his anonymity, Zim takes on the form of several different wizards, including the dwarf Brown Bleegum, the free-spirited young wizard Ganalan, the melancholy minstrel Vega, the strong-man Rooster, the red-haired Green Knight, and the crusty seaman Winkle.  See The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 2: Tippetarius in Oz for more information.


* Chapter 21 is explicitly dated at the 32nd year of Ozma's reign, which is 1933.  Over the course of the next few chapters, ten years elapse: It is 9 years from the time King Filamore is picked from the Rosebush to the time he is replaced by the new king and saved by Zim (page 265), and 10 years from the time Dinny first visits the Mangaboos to the time he and Zim return to extend their lives (page 273).










A Pumpkin Patch in Oz


This story appears in The Corn Mansion of Oz.


Story: Concerned about his head spoiling, Jack Pumpkinhead and Ozma seek out a pumpkin patch in which to grow new heads.  Because pumpkins are out of season (noted in The Road to Oz), this must be March.  So, Jack gets the idea to grow his own pumpkins. 


Thanks to an old Munchkin farmer, Jack finds a place just outside the Emerald City where he can grow a pumpkin patch.  Still worried that he'll spoil before the pumpkins can grow large enough, Jack seeks a potion from Mombi's hut, but meets with an accident.  Thanks to the Scarecrow, he's saved, but Glinda arrives to share with him the news that his head will be fine until the pumpkins are ripe, and that one will grow so large, he can build a house inside it. 


Jack learns everything he can about farming pumpkins, and discovers that Glinda's words prove true.  Jack finally has Ozma carve him a new head on April 9th, 1902.











The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz 


The Royal Timeline of Oz considers The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz a deuterocanonical work


Story: Bored with her new duties as princess of Oz, Ozma decides to disguise herself as Tip and sneak off for some fun.  Along the way, she discovers the truth about the Hammerheads and the Forest of Fighting Trees, rescues Quox the Dragon, who accidentally fell through the Hollow Tube into Oz, and meets the Fairy Queen Lurline.


Continuity notes:

Dating: This story takes place in the Spring, and can be surmised that it is the very beginning of the season (assuming Oz, like the U.S. utilizes the vernal equinox of the Northern Hemisphere), early March 1902.  At this point, the royal family of Ev has been sold to the Nome King.  This story leads directly into Ozma of Oz.

Jellia Jamb: Jellia is noted to be the daughter of Jimb Jamb, a neighbor of Mombi and Tip in the Gillikin Country.


The Deadly Desert: The Deadly Desert is confirmed to have been turned that way from the Great Sandy Waste by a fairy.  Lurline is shown to have done this in The Witch Queen of Oz.


Dragon names: The Original Dragon is named Skanderbeg, though this seems unlikely as this is a 15th century Albanian Lord whose name is an Arabic derivation of Alexander the Great, which means "man's defender and chieftain."  More likely it's used as a title, though how the Original Dragon came to be known as "man's defender" is a story that has not yet been told!


The Empire of the Fairy Fellowship: The Land of An (first identified as such in The Law of Oz and Other Stories), where the Original Dragon and Tititi-Hoochoo live, is called at this time "The Empire of the Fairy Fellowship."  Baum had never identified it by name.


Forest King: When the Cowardly Lion and Hungry Tiger leave the forest to live in the Emerald City, the Cowardly Lion appoints a Kalidah (whose one of his chief councilors) as regent.


Giant Spider: The spider who the Cowardly Lion beheaded later found his head and shrunk back to standard spider size (which seems to hint at a magical enchantment).


Hammer-heads and Opaloz: The Hammer-heads were actually put in place to guard the Opaloz, which was put in place by Lurline to continually heal the land and ensure that it remains a fairyland.  This item likely works in tandem with the Enchanted Apples from The Enchanted Apples of Oz and the Speckled Rose from The Speckled Rose of Oz.  Two others are said to know of the Opaloz besides Glinda.  These might be Ozma's fairy-cousins Ozana and Ozga.


Language in Oz: The absence of a language barrier in Oz is explained on page 154.


Location, location, location: The location of the Hammer-heads and Forest of Fighting Trees is addressed, as Ozma and the Sawhorse agree that the Scarecrow was wrong in his depiction of them being in proximity to the Emerald City, explaining that perhaps his new brains weren't quite in order. The story's placement of them is in accordance with later books, Baum's map and the Martin & Haff map.


Lurline: This is Ozma's first time meeting with her subjects outside of the Emerald City, and the first time she meets Lurline, who encourages her policy of non-violence and compassion.  They will meet again in The Magic Carpet of Oz and The Magical Mimics of Oz.  Lurline's absence of many years is explained in The Magic Umbrella of Oz.


The Magic Picture: The Magic Picture is a gift to Ozma from the powerful fairy Tititi-Hoochoo (who first appeared Tik-Tok of Oz) in thanks for her returning the dragon Quox unharmed.  It can be surmised that the very similar Magic Picture utilized by the King of the Fairy Beavers in John Dough and the Cherub was also a gift of Tititi-Hoochoo's.  In The Shaggy Man of Oz, however, it's noted that on page 250, that Ozma says "the Magic Picture is my own fairy creation, and I understand its magic better than anyone else."  This is reconciled by the fact that Ozma is a fairy and had a life before being reborn in Oz in 1742.  She was part of Lurline's band, and very well have originally made the Magic Picture.  Tititi-Hoochoo's gift is, thus, a subtle way to reconnect her to her pre-Ozian past.


Middle-Earth: The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz makes a connection to Tolkien's Middle Earth.  On page 139, Ozma challenges Quox to a riddle-game, and uses one of the very same riddles, "a box without hinges, key or lid, yet golden treasure inside is hid."  This was Tolkien's own composition (see The Annotated Hobbit: Revised and Expanded, page 123; HarperCollins), and doesn't derive from an earlier fairy-tale/fantasy, which solidifies the connection.  The stories of Middle-Earth would, of course, have taken place aeons earlier.  Page 195 also mentions the existence of orcs, goblins and trolls. 


Mr. Tinker: Mr. Tinker's ladder is said to have been telescoping, and a prototype of it allowed Wainwright to cross the Deadly Desert.


New Roads: Glinda acknowledges having built a road to bypass the Hill of the Hammer-heads.


The Quadrants of Oz: The original names of the four quadrants of Oz is here for the first time listed: The Golden West for the Winkies, Rosewood Meandows for Quadling country, The Land of Purple Mountains for the Gillikins and the Land of Sky Blue Waters for the Munchkins.


Quox's age: Quox's age can only be guesstimated from the information provided on pages 35, 114, 121 and 155.  Tik-Tok of Oz provides a more precise age of nearly 3,056 years old, which makes him 3,053 years old at this time.  He is made to forget his journey to Oz by Tititi-Hoochoo.


The Red Wagon: Ozma receives the Red Wagon from a certain Dcim Wainwright, who was the apprentice of Mr. Smith (of Smith & Tinker). 


Rulers of Faerie: In addition to the Original Dragon, who is lord of all creatures, the story introduced the other three of the "Big Four," the Unicorn Monokeros (which means "the single opportune time and moment,") who is lord of all beasts, the Phoenix who is lord of all birds, and the Tortoise, who is lord of all reptiles.


Visits to Mombi: On pages 77-78, Glinda incorrectly attributes the nature of the Wizard's three visits to Mombi, the details of which were not revealed to her until she interviewed him in Oz and the Three Witches.



Cowardly Lion and Hungry Tiger: The meeting of the Cowardly Lion and Hungry Tiger proves a conflict with Edward Einhorn's "Ozma Sees Herself," in which Ozma has already spent time with the Cowardly Lion, however, the removal of pages 185-187, which are extraneous to the overall story, eliminates this problem.  It is clear from prior stories that the Cowardly Lion had spent time in the Emerald City with Scarecrow and Tin Woodman, and must have returned there after the events of The Marvelous Land of Oz, to meet Ozma.  Then, following the events of "Ozma Sees Herself," he returned to his forest and has not been back in some time.  When Ozma appears in this story, she's disguised as a boy, so that the lion does not recognize her.


Roquat: This history of Roquat the Nome King is presented: Roquat is known to have been born in 917 as per Pirates in Oz.  Here, he is shown to be the offspring of two formerly warring underground fairy races, who united in marriage by the Thill princess Yenoh and the Ghorn prince Yetsan, the latter who taught Roquat to be wicked and dissimulate.  Kaliko is said to be a Thill.  When Roquat comes to power, he eliminates another two warring tribes, the Goblins and Trolls, by transforming them into Nomes.  Apparently, this is not worldwide, but only those in the vicinity of his realm.  The hobgoblins—noted as reformed goblins—are still around, though in few numbers, attempting to achieve good in Ev.  The story predicts the Nome King's eventual turn to good in Dr. Angelina Bean in Oz.  As to Roquat's origins, there's nothing that contradicts this history, which is interesting.  Clearly, this is not the Nome King met by Santa centuries or millennia earlier (who I suggest may be Goldemar from Zauberlinda the Wise Witch).  Clearly, there's much yet to be revealed of the history of Roquat.


Stork Maidens: One of the primary subjects of criticism of this story is the stork maidens, which are said to be Glinda's girls rather than actual storks (page 130).  Two points: In all but Glinda of Oz, her chariot is said to be flown by swans. Thus, the simplest retcon for this is that in Oz, as is stated in the text, work is balanced with play, and this would be true for the storks, swans, as well as humans. Even with a regular rotation of birds there will come times when there are gaps, and this would be when Glinda uses her magic to transform a reserve of girls into storks, a tradition that perhaps started on a day when there were no swans or storks on duty.  A Promise Kept in Oz indicates that Glinda switches off between her storks and swans.  Time Traveling in of Oz again features the girl-storks. 








Ozma of Oz


Baum's third Oz book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Story: Tossed overboard on route to Australia with her Uncle Henry, Dorothy and a chicken end up washed ashore in the Land of Ev.  The chicken Billina can now speak, and with Dorothy discover a metal man named Tik-Tok, who has to be wound to function.  As they head to the castle of Princess Langwidere, he explains that the King of Ev sold his family to the Nome King before drowning himself.  Langwidere has a collection of heads, and seeks to attain Dorothy's as well.  When Dorothy refuses, she locks her up.  Meanwhile, having heard of the plight of the Royal Family of Ev, Ozma has brought an army across the Deadly Desert.  There, she and Dorothy meet for the first time.  She secures her from Langwidere and together they head to the caverns of the Nome King.  Unwilling to part with his new treasures (the Nome King has transformed the royal family into ornaments), Roquat the Red allows the Ozian embassy to guess which ornaments are Evian royalty, but after a number of tries, will become an ornament themselves.  This trick is uncovered by Billina, who helps Dorothy guess correctly, and who uses her eggs to defeat the Nome King, as eggs are discovered to be poisonous to Nomes.


Continuity notes:

Dating: Based on several factors, it can be determined that this story takes place in mid-March, with Dorothy's trip to Australia beginning in early January (See Appendices: Dating the Early Books for more information on the chronological placement of this book).  While the adventure itself takes seven days (see The Chronology of Oz here), Dorothy stays in Oz for "several weeks" before asking to be sent to Australia.  During this time, The Enchanted Apples of Oz occurs, as does the first two chapters of The Nome King's Shadow in Oz The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz immediately precede it.


Characters: This is Baum's introduction to Tik-Tok (generally regarded as the first fictional robot), Billina the Yellow Hen, the Hungry Tiger, Roquat the Nome King, who will appear as a regular villain throughout the Oz series (see The History of the Nome King in the appendices), the Land of Ev and royal family of Ev, including the infamous Princess Langwidere.  Prince Evrob appears again in "Evrob and the Nomes."


King of the Munchkins: Another mystery is the identity of the King of Munchkins.  If King Cheeriobed is trapped in the Ozure Isles by the monster Quiberon, why does the current king of the Munchkins not tell Ozma this?  And if he does, or if he is King Cheeriobed (who perhaps was not in the Ozure Isles when Quiberon arrived), and he does tell Ozma, then why does she have no knowledge of their situation?  The most likely solution is that this "King of the Munchkins" did not tell Ozma of the plight of the former king because he did not want to lose power.  This is revealed in "Four Views of General Jinjur," which reveals that he was a fraud, connected neither to Cheeriobed's line nor to the Seebanian Kings (which is Unc Nunkie and Ojo's line).


Omby Amby is for the first time named (he was formerly the Soldier with the Green Whiskers, and is identified as such in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz).


Princess Langwidere: Langwidere is a bit of a mystery, as she possesses the ability to live without a head and to put on other heads that have been chopped off of other women.  The latter only retain vestigial traits, which Langwidere takes on when she wears the head, but not their complete personalities or memories.  Langwidere's disposition changes with each head, but she remains Princess Langwidere and does not become the persons who formerly had their heads.  This is reminiscent of the monarch and royal family of Mo (as seen in The Magical Monarch of Mo), who are able to switch heads and lose limbs without pain or loss of life.  That Princess Langwidere thinks this is normal indicates that she may be from Mo herself, or be a child of Mo royalty, married into the Evian royal family.  For an early history of Langwidere, see The Princess of Ev.  The upcoming story "The Trade" will look at the events following this story.


Discrepancy: A minor matter is Tik-Tok's knowledge of King Evoldo's suicide, which seems unlikely since Evoldo locked him up first.  A simple solution may be that Evoldo told Tik-Tok of his plans to throw himself and the key into the ocean.


Ev: Not much is known of Ev, as most of the time is spent in the first of Baum's underworld dominions, but what little is depicted is a land that has few if any talking animals; death is the norm for all but the underground Nomes (who are a kind of rock fairy).  It's a mystery that Billina can speak when other chickens in Ev cannot, though perhaps Glinda or Lurline had a hand in this.  Additionally, Jim the Cab horse, Eureka, and the Nine Tiny Piglets (Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz) all can speak prior to entering Oz.  (Hank the Mule doesn't until he's in Oz, but Toto didn't speak for awhile, so there may be reasons.)  Ev is more deeply explored in Paul Dana's forthcoming book, The Immortal Longings of Oz.


The location of Ev proves even more problematic, as they return to Oz from across the Deadly Desert, and appear in the Munchkin Country.  Later Baum books, however, place Ev across from the Winkie Country.  The Haff & Martin maps follow Baum's later statements and place Ev west of Oz, but there are admittedly no easy answers to this issue.  I'm inclined to agree with this later designation and say that at some point during their journey across the desert, Dorothy tried to use the Magic Belt to transport them, and ended up in the Munchkin Country (Dorothy uses the Belt as a transportation device in The Enchanted Apples of Oz, which takes place a short time later).  Incidentally, The Road to Oz locates it north of Oz.


The Magic Belt: This is another source of interest.  It is likely what protects Roquat from the poison of the eggs that the Scarecrow throws at his face (although Tik-Tok of Oz mentions there being a little known magic word that a Nome can say immediately to protect him). Dorothy takes the Nome King's Magic Belt (which she gives to Ozma at the end of the story).  Under Roquat's use, it failed to work on wood, though later on, in other stories, it does.  This was explained in "Ruggedo and the School of Magic," when Glinda discovered that the Belt has a glass jewel instead of a diamond one.  Upon replacing it, the Belt can work on wood again.


Queen of Ev and the Royal Family: Baum names the entire royal family, except the Queen of Ev.  She is given a name in The Tired Tailor of Oz: Queen Evraline.  Her original name, as Princess Bevina, was given in "The Princess of Ev."  She hails from Boboland.  The rest of the Royal family are thus named: Princess Evanna, Prince Evardo, Princess Evedna, Princess Evella, Prince Evington, Princess Evirene, Prince Evring, Prince Evrob, Prince Evroland, and Princess Evrose.


Return to Oz: The Disney film has several sequences and lines of dialogue taken directly from this book, although Princess Langwidere is combined with Mombi, and Dorothy and Ozma's histories are different.


Smith & Tinker: Rejano Edison Smith and Ezra Pascal Tinker's inventions can be found all over Oz and Ev, and appear in various stories.  The men themselves reappear alive and well, the former in Oziana 1987's "Button Bright and the Knit-Wits of Oz" and the latter in "Mr. Tinker in Oz" and the forthcoming book The Lost Queen of Oz.  They are now living in Oz.  Years later, Smith's grandson reopens Smith & Tinker in Ev and manages it under his more practical, if less imaginative leadership (Wooglet in Oz).






The Princess of Ev

Click on the title above to access this story


Story: Princess Langwidere (from Ozma of Oz) loses her head to her uncle, King Evoldo, who, from then on, brings her the heads of various maids and servants.


Continuity notes:

Dating: Story takes place over the course of Princess Langwidere's early life.


Queen of Ev: The narrative gives her original name, as Princess Bevina when she is a Princess of Boboland.  In The Tired Tailor of Oz, her married name is Queen Evraline.  The Immortal Longings of Oz (forthcoming) explains how King Evoldo expected his foreign-born wife to take an Ev name, symbolically suppressing her individuality.





The Enchanted Apples of Oz


Story: When Dorothy, Scarecrow and Billina stumble upon a mysterious castle, they learn from its keeper Valynn the secret of the Wicked Witch of the South, and the power of the enchanted apples to keep Oz a fairyland.  When Bortag, who is in love with the sleeping witch, arrives and steals the apples, the witch awakens and all of Oz is threatened.


Continuity Notes:

Dating: This story takes place at the end of Ozma of Oz, thus in the February of 1903, just before Dorothy returns to Australia.


Wicked Witch of the South: As per the author, the unnamed Wicked Witch of the South, who Glinda put to sleep in 1803, is the sister of the other Wicked Witch of the South Singra.  The Royal Timeline of Oz has named her Angra (see Names and Relations of the Wicked Witches in the Appendices).  Both are cousins of the East and West witches.  Angra is able to use the Belt to turn Dorothy into a wooden statue, which reveals that the Belt could indeed be used in this way, something Roquat and the Nomes did not know how to do.  In "Ruggedo and the School of Magic," it is discovered that a precious stone had been replaced on the belt with a glass one.  The Wicked Witch of the South likely combined her own powers with that of the Belt in order to turn Dorothy to wood.


The Enchanted Apples, which are protected by Valynn, represent the second magical element that maintains Oz's enchantment.  The first is the Opaloz, guarded by the Hammer-heads, which Ozma learned of in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz.  The third is the Speckled Rose, protected by Glinda, which the Scarecrow learned about when he was king in The Speckled Rose of Oz


New characters and places: This story introduces a flying swordfish named Drox, and the ugly town of Glun (south of Rigamarole in the Quadling Country), where Bortag comes from.







The Nome King’s Shadow in Oz


Story: When the Nome Kingdom is under invasion by Ozites and Billina's eggs, the Nome King is so frightened, that his shadow detaches from him and comes to life.  Calling himself Shady, he determines to avenge the Nome King's honor, and pursue the Ozites back to Oz, where he takes possession of several beings, including one of Billina's chicks, which he uses to cause mischief.


Continuity notes:

Dating: Begins during the climax of Ozma of Oz, when the fear of Billina and her eggs causes Roquat the Nome King to detach from his shadow, which, unbeknownst to anyone, comes to life.  The main action of the story begins about two months later when Shady finally figures out a way to get across the Deadly Desert (shadows disintegrate in the sun). 


Living shadow: The concept of an actual sapient shadow was first mentioned in The Wonder City of Oz with the Heelers, whose shadows abused them so much they only went about on moonless nights.


















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