Ozzy Footnotes 3










Eureka in Oz


Story: Novella that explains the mystery of how Eureka got back to Oz (she appears out of the blue in The Patchwork Girl of Oz after being sent to Kansas in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz) and how she went from being white to pink.


Her life in Kansas proves unsatisfying, and Eureka ends up following Dorothy back to Oz in The Road to Oz, concealing her pursuit initially from lack of trust in the Shaggy Man, and then because she doesn't want to be sent back to Kansas. 


After sparing the Queen of the Field Mice, Eureka is sent to Professor Nowitall, who teaches her about Oz and manners.  When the Red Menace, a rogue tixie (a being responsible for the colors of Oz) is loose in the land, Eureka captures it and returns it to its domain, but turns pink in the process.  The story concludes shortly after the events of The Emerald City of Oz, when Eureka and the Professor go to the Emerald City to ask Ozma if she can stay. 


Continuity Notes:

Colors and Continuity: In order for this story to fit alongside the Oziana 1984 story, "The Piglet's Revenge," it has to be assumed that either the tixie's color eventually wore off, or that the Wizard restored her original color, so that the cat became white again, a restoration that was ruined when she started chasing the piglets who revenged themselves on her.  In The Lost King of Oz, Dorothy mentions having a white kitten, which can be seen as a historian error, or an indication that the pink color wore off again (though if so, Eureka had been pink for some time, and may have chosen to re-pink herself afterwards). A digital version of this story is currently available (click on the image above), while a new version of  is being prepared by The Royal Publisher of Oz.


Dating: This story spans the course of a few years, beginning shortly before the events of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, with Eureka kicking around in Australia as a kitten when Dorothy finds her after she returns from Oz (as detailed in Ozma of Oz), then on her trip to San Francisco, where the events of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz occur, and then to Kansas. 


Professor Nowitall: The Professor Nowitall in this story, is Professor Nowitall Jr., who borrowed his father's magnifying screen for his class, the same class in which the Wogglebug grew and became the famous professor.  The fate of his father is told in Bucketheads in Oz.






General Jinjur of Oz

History: Uncompleted and unpublished until the 2006 publication of Adventures in Oz, General Jinjur of Oz details a previously untold story of Roquat's first attempt to regain his Magic Belt.  The first half is fully illustrated and lettered, but the second half exists only in script form with page sketches to accompany it.


Story: Along with Professor Wogglebug, the Tin Woodman, Scarecrow, Tik-Tok, Jack Pumpkinhead and Omby Amby, Ozma sees in the Magic Picture that Roquat is preparing an army of Nomes to attack Oz. As Omby Amby doesn't wish to go, the Scarecrow suggests that Ozma employ General Jinjur and her Army of Revolt.  Jinjur gathers girls from all four quadrants of Oz to join.  Armed with knitting needles and eggs, the army is sent by Ozma to a canyon above the underground Nome Kingdom by means of the Magic Belt.  Jinjur is given a ring that will bring them back when they've won. 


The battle ensues, but the girls are no match for the Nome army.  Jinjur has herself brought before Roquat to demand his surrender, but he insists he's the wronged party.  She attempts to box his ears, but what little magic he has protects him from her assault.  Because she's broken their truce by means of violence, he has Kaliko escort her to the prison.


Kaliko shows her through a huge cavern where they see giant hot Lava Lizard, which the Nomes came upon near to the earth's core.  They imprisoned it and brought it their king's domain.  Because the creature can cross the Deadly Desert without harm, they anticipate climbing upon her huge back once she cools off and entering Oz.   Seeing that she looks depressed, Jinjur encourages Kaliko to speak to the creature and try to cheer it up.  The Lava Lizard is unhappy about being imprisoned, and this gives Jinjur an idea.


When the day comes that the Lava Lizard has cooled off, the Nome army arrives to mount him.  Before they can she begins laying eggs!  In terror, the Nomes run, and Jinjur presses the magic ring, signaling Ozma to bring the army back to Oz.  She's hailed as a hero, but admits to Ozma that she looks forward to a little peace.

Continuity notes:

Dating: Takes place shortly after Ozma of Oz, before the Wizard returns to Oz, and very early in Ozma's reign, as evidenced by her unusual recourse to violence.


Lava Lizard: The Lava Lizard is a giant underground creature that lives in lava.  Similar to some of the other fire creatures (see Appendices: Deadly Desert Inhabitants), it can cross the Deadly Desert without harm.





Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz


   Baum's fourth Oz book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Story: In California, Dorothy travels with her "second cousin" Zeb Hugson (his Uncle Hugson was married to Em's sister, which makes them not related at all) on his cab-horse Jim, along with her newly acquired pet kitten Eureka, when an earthquake occurs, causing them to fall into a hole in the ground.  Terrified, they find themselves in the underground Vegetable Kingdom of the Mangaboos.  There, they discover a race of heartless people who grow like plants in a greenhouse.  Dorothy is then reacquainted with Oscar the Diggs, the former Wizard of Oz, whose balloon also fell into a hole, dropping him into the same location.  With him are nine tiny piglets who perform tricks for him. 


They escape the Mangaboos who seek to destroy them, and go through the Black Pit, where they find themselves in the Valley of Voe.  In this strange land, the people eat of the Dama-fruit to become invisible in order to escape being killed by roving bands of invisible bears.  Their narrow escape from that valley takes them to Pyramid Mountain, wherein they meet the gentle Braided Man who makes flutters and rustles.  Finally, they enter into a country of wooden gargoyles, who they must fight to escape, and, at last, a den of dragonettes before Ozma brings them to Oz. 


After introductions and a celebration, the Wizard gifts Ozma one of his piglets, but after it disappears from Ozma's chamber, where Eureka is found, the kitten is placed on trial, and accused of having eaten the piglet.  The Tin Woodman defends her, whilst the Wogglebug stands for the prosecution.  The former fails to convince the jury, and Eureka is pronounced guilty, with the punishment of death for the crime.  Eureka allows this to happen before producing evidence of her innocence. 


Zeb and Jim are anxious to get back to their ranch in San Francisco, the latter after having humiliated himself after kicking the Sawhorse, who won in a race against him, so Ozma sends Dorothy to Kansas, where Uncle Henry and Aunt Em are in mourning (thinking Dorothy dead), and Zeb and Jim to their ranch.


Continuity notes:

Animal Rights: Eureka's trial for murder provides an early indication that animals in Oz are viewed equally with humans, and are not eaten as food.  The Road to Oz and Tik-Tok of Oz note that all animals in Oz talk.  which would mean that all "meat" in Oz grows on trees and plants, as indicated in Ozma of Oz,  and underscored in several later stories (e.g., "The Way of a Lion").   


Characters: Zeb and Jim are two of the few visiting Oz characters who don't stay in Oz.  They will not appear in an Oz story again until the prelude of Jeff Rester's Death Comes to Oz, which is available here.  Jim the Cabhorse is said to be the only real horse in Oz, which is another generalization that Baum contradicts, as the Cowardly Lion and Tip are both familiar with horses.


Dating: This story takes place in late April, as Dorothy as on her way home from California after having spent a considerable time vacationing in Australia with Uncle Henry. (see Dating the Early Oz Books in the Appendices for more details).  It takes place over the course of 11 days (see the Day-to-Day Chronology).


Dragons: The dragonettes claim to trace their heritage back 20,000 years ago, "when humans had not yet been born," to the Green Dragon of Atlantis.  The Green Dragon itself must trace his heritage to the Original Dragon who purportedly dates back 50,000 years, and lives in Tititi-Hoochoo's Land of An (The Empire of the Fairy Fellowship) [page 169.] They reappear in several future stories, including The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1: The Disenchanted Princess in Oz, The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 3: Zim Greenleaf of Oz, Ruggedo in Oz, and The Emerald City Mirror #11.


Language: Ozma says that Oz means "good and great in our language."  Page 194. What language that is cannot be ascertained.  Is this a current language that everyone comes to speak when they enter the Nonestic lands?  Is this a former language that was once spoken?  These questions may be answered in an upcoming book. 


Magic Picture: Dorothy notes that Ozma checks in on her everyday at 4:00. (Page 179).  This is a change from when she last spoke to her in Ozma of Oz, in which Ozma said she'd check in on her every Saturday.  It seems likely that Dorothy paid an untold visit to Ozma one Saturday while Dorothy was in Australia with Uncle Henry, and Ozma updated the instructions so that she'd check in on her every day at 4:00.  It also seems possible that Ozma kept (or initially gave) both instructions, as Dorothy Haas' Random House Oz books utilize both scenarios.


Sequels: The underworld realms, including the Valley of the Mangaboos, is visited and dealt with by Zim in The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1: The Disenchanted Princess of Oz.  The Braided Man appears in several later stories, including The Road to Oz, a book named for him, an Oziana 1997 story (in which he's offered residence in the Emerald City) and The Emerald City Mirror.  Eureka stars in a book of her own, which tell of her adventures prior to, and after this story, and which explains how she came back to Oz and, along with "The Piglet's Revenge, or How Eureka Became Pink," how she became permanently pink.


Vegetable Kingdom of Mangaboos: It's noted on the maps that this and its adjacent underground lands lie under Boboland.


Witch History: Ozma offers some history of the land, indicating that there were indeed four Wicked Witches (of which Mombi was Wicked Witch of the North) who "leagued together" to depose the the King of Oz, Ozma's grandfather (who would be King Oz, aka Pastoria I).  Mombi abducted King Oz and later Ozma's father Pastoria II.  By the time the Wizard arrives in Oz, however, Mombi was removed from power by the Good Witch of the North (this has to be the one prior to Orin), and the Wicked Witch of the South (all three of them, as it turns out) were defeated by Glinda.


The Wizard: The Wizard notes that he grew to be old in Oz, establishing that he directed the residents to build the Emerald City, and that he'd lived there for some time.


Wogglebug: The behavior of the Wogglebug, his attitude towards the Wizard, and the change in Ozma's policies are elaborated on in the short story "The Prosecutor."


Wooden Gargoyles: Although this realm was said to be burned by the fire, many if not all survived, including the tamed gargoyle Gorry from The Braided Man of Oz.  The Wizard, Dorothy and Eureka visits the rebuilt city many decades later in Ruggedo in Oz, which notes that the actual name of the realm is the Land of Naught.


Zeb Hugson: Zeb won't be seen again until the events of Jeff Rester's upcoming Death Comes to Oz (and appears in the "Prelude," which can be read here.









Oz and the Three Witches


The Royal Timeline of Oz considers this novella deuterocanonical


Story and Continuity Notes:

This story, which tells the tale of the Wizard’s history in Oz prior to Dorothy’s arrival, takes place the day following Dorothy’s return to the Great Outside World in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, which is in early September. With the truth pearl measuring his honesty, the Wizard explains to Glinda and Ozma how and why he behaved as he did, detailing each of the three visits he pays to Mombi, including the reason he handed baby Ozma to her. 


Arrival: The Wizard lands in his O.Z. balloon and is welcomed by the people as the new king sent by the fairies. The old king is gone.  The Wizard sets up his court in the old palace of Morrow, located near the Winkie border.  This is not the same Morrow as the hunting lodge of Pastoria II, as noted in The Lost King of Oz (located on the Martin & Haff map in the Quadling country), but the original one (called Ozmara in The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 2) set towards the center of Oz, close to the Winkie border, which Pajuka says was a castle that once stood where the Emerald City now is.  This era, only briefly sketched here, is best represented in the comic-book adaptation of Donald Abbot's How the Wizard Came to Oz


Oscar befriends the Regent of the Realm, a man named Klestro, whom he appoints Prime Minister, and Galden who he appoints his major domo.  Klestro teaches him Oz history.  After learning this, the Wizard gets the people to begin building a walled city in the exact center of the land.  During this time, he pays the first of three visits to the witch Mombi.


The First Visit to Mombi: The Wizard goes to her hut to intimidate Mombi into believing he's a genuine wizard so that she'll leave him alone.  After he does a trick with water and fire, and another (a variation of the nine-tiny piglets, only with mice), the exchange magic items and because she's feeling vulnerable after her recent defeat by the Good Witch of the North, agrees to leave one another alone.  This dates this to 1892, which is when Mombi was defeated by the Good Witch of the North (see the notes of The Giant Horse of Oz) and is confirmed by his Third and Final Visit to Mombi.  The wizard learns of the prophecy of the baby that will spell the end of the rule of the East and West witches.  Mombi tells him the East and West witches will stop at nothing to get the baby.


The Wicked Witch of the West Attacks: While the city is being built, and the Wizard inspects it, the Wicked Witch of the West sends her wolves, and he hides up a tree.  She then sends her crows, but he drives them away with a smoke pot, which drew his soldiers to him, and caused the wolves to flee.  A few days later, she sent her bees to attack, but again the smoke pot drove them away. 


The Wizard studies them in his library and discover that the Silver Shoes can not only transport the East witch, but shoot a magic lightning bolt.  This appears to be contradicted in the serialized version of How the Wizard Came to Oz, in which the Wicked Witch of the East claims her shoes cannot harm a living creature.  Yet, the shoes might be able to destroy property, which is what they do as regards the former capital of Oz.


Construction of the Emerald City: The Wizard notes that there were several emerald mines in the area, which is why the city was made of emeralds.  The spectacles were not only to make the white marbled walls appear green, but to help offset the effects of yellow and blue magic, and to aid in detecting a witch who'd snuck in.  Ozma notes that she later expanded the palace with a wing off the throne room (which corresponds with what the 1904 edition of the Ozmapolitan said) containing her suite and three guest suites. 


Disguise: With the silk from his balloon, and an elixir given him by Mombi on his first visit, the Wizard constructed a costume and disguised himself as a tall woman, which gets the people believing he can transform into other forms.  The Wicked Witch of the West journeys west of Morrow to a Winkie Mountain.  Using her telescopic eye, she transforms Galden, now the Wizard's personal servant and friend, into a green rabbit, but he transforms back, and the Wizard takes credit for it. The Wizard then has his servants prepare for him a mirrored shield to protect him from the lightning power of the Silver Shoes.


The Wicked Witch of the East Attacks: The East Witch arrives the next day, and blew open a hole in the nursery tower.  Baby Ozma was hid by her nurse in the dungeons, but after the witch began destroying the palace, the Wizard instructed the baby to be taken in secret to the porter's lodge (which is like Pastoria's hunting lodge in the other Morrow).  The Wizard's mirror does the trick, and he causes the witch to flee for a time.  Then he reveals the truth about himself to Galden, who vows to keep his secret.


The Second Visit to Mombi: Mombi tells the Wizard that as the prophecy of the child has no bearing on her, she can hide and protect the child from the East and West witches.  She claims that if it is destroyed, all of Oz will be destroyed by the wrath of the fairies.  The Wizard promises to bring her the child.


At the lodge where he'd secreted the baby, the Wizard discovers that someone was prowling around and had enchanted the nurse into a wolf (who scared off the prowler).  Convinced it was the best way to protect the baby, the Wizard makes...


The Third and Final Visit to Mombi: The Wizard hands baby Ozma off to Mombi, who enchants her into a boy.  According to the account in The Master Crafters of Oz, Nikidik claims to have been there, and had provided Mombi with the spell she used.  This spell, however, was a backup plan.  The main spell was the switcheroo spell noted in The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1: The Disenchanted Princess of Oz (this spell was first cast five years earlier in 1887).  Afterwards, Mombi leaves her cottage for the one further north.  It's a two-day journey to the Gillikin cottage where Tip/Ozma will grow up.  The 1892 date is again confirmed by Jack Pumpkinhead of Oz, which states on page 27 that Tip spent "nearly nine years" with Mombi.


Attack of the Wicked Witches: The following day, both witches attacked Morrow, destroying it further, although the Wizard was prepared, having earlier rooted out their spies, and had them attacking each other, while he remained safe, disguised as a bear.  Galden, however, was caught in the crossfire and transformed into a ring, which the Wizard wore even when back in the U.S.  The Winged Monkeys are sent, but they bring back a dummy the Wizard had rigged instead.  This is the third time the Wicked Witch of the West uses the Golden Cap.  The first two times are noted in How the Wizard Came to Oz Since the Witch also uses the Golden Cap in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, the likely retcon is that after using it the third time (in this story), she gave the Golden Cap to her sister, the Wicked Witch of the East, who uses it for her own purposes (perhaps to fend off other enemies and rivals), and when she's used it three times, gives it back to her sister.  Thus, the Golden Cap is reset by someone else's use, allowing the Wicked Witch of the West another three uses.


Glinda looks at the ring, and disenchants it back to Galden, who Ozma gives a room to.  The Wizard is allowed to stay, but will be trained by Glinda in real magic, and is appointed the official Wizard of Oz.





Dorothy and the Seven-Leaf Clover


Story: When Dorothy returns to Oz, Toto gets himself trapped inside a small summerhouse surrounded by an enchanted corn field.  With him is a Golden Boy whose been enchanted by the Wicked Witch of the West, who turned his body and heart to gold.  A caterpillar informs Dorothy, the Cowardly Lion, Scarecrow and Tin Woodman that the only thing that will break the spell is a seven-leaf clover.  On their way to find one, they encounter weasel-foxes who had allegiance to the witch, but now pay it to Dorothy (who orders them far away).  They also meet a cow who leads them to the clover.  They disenchant the boy, who is a Popcorn Boy, and discover that the caterpillar has turned into a Corn Silk girl.


Continuity notes:

Dating: Dorothy makes a signal to Ozma on Saturday morning, following the instructions Ozma gave her at the end of Ozma of Oz, instructions which were changed at the end of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz to every day at 4:00.  It may be that Dorothy had Ozma revert to the "every Saturday morning" instructions due to being busy on the farm after school.  Also, given the shock that her two disappearances in the latter gave Henry and Em, perhaps Dorothy is showing concern for their feelings, and willing to slip away only when she won't noticed. Dorothy says to Toto that "it's awhile since we've been here in Oz." 







Dorothy and Old King Crow


Story: After King Crow enchants the Scarecrow with a spell, Dorothy seeks for a way to help, and agrees to a spelling contest, which the crow believes he will easily win.  After giving her the word bamboozlement to spell, Dorothy is certain she will lose, but a Spelling Bee comes to her aid. 


Continuity Notes:

Bees that Spell: This Spelling Bee appears to be the inspiration for the character in Toto and the Cats in Oz, though there is no recognition in the latter tale of Dorothy and her friends in that story.


Ozma's Instructions: For the first time, Dorothy follows the instructions Ozma gives her in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, when Ozma said she'd check in on her every day at 4:00 (which may indicate Dorothy's feeling freer to go back to Oz more often. 






Mr. Tinker in Oz


Story: Mr. Tinker, Tik-Tok's famous inventor (who went to live in the moon) ends up by mistake in Kansas, where he picks up Dorothy, and together heads to Oz believing that Tik-Tok's warranty has expired.


After Tinker temporarily shrinks her as a means of transporting her to Oz, the two get separated, and Dorothy ends up in the Winkie country of Oz, where she meets the Widdlebits, who are essentially tiny talking babies.  They're under attack from ants, but one of Tinker's inventions, Julius Quickscissors, ends up saving them.  Reuinted with Tinker, they're restored to normal size, but they must cross the bottomless swamp to get to the Emerald City.


There they meet Princess Astoria, the last of seven sisters who are all queens except her.  When she went to petition the Wizard years earlier to help make her a queen, she lost her companion to the Wumpguppies in the Bottomless Swamp.  So hideous are they that any who looks upon them whilst attempt to cross the bridge faints and falls into the pit.  Astoria now warns others of the dangers.  Tinker uses a mirror to help cross the bridge and urges the others to follow with closed eyes.  Astoria's lullaby helps put the Wumpguppies to sleep.


In the Emerald City, everybody suffers from a mysterious bout of depression.  Also, Tik-Tok reveals that Tinker was off by nine hundred and twenty-four years, indicating that Tik-Tok was first manufactured in 1879. 


Ozma charges Tinker to invent something that will help them, but Tinker feels that he's lost his abilities.  Nevertheless, he creates a placebo, but it's the laughter of the Widdlebits upon seeing Tik-Tok and the Scarecrow that restores the Ozites to psychological health.


Princess Astoria is made Empress of the Nursery, and the Widdlebits become residents of the Emerald City.


Continuity notes:

Dating: Due to the weather, this appears to take place in the late fall or winter.  This is the one instance in which time is altered so that Dorothy is able to appear back in the Kansas at the same moment in which she left.  This is attributed to Tinker's watch.  As the Wizard is not present in the company, and the story must take place after Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, it seems likely that the Wizard is training with Glinda during Dorothy's brief trip to the Emerald City.  Ozma appoints Tinker "First and Only Inventor of Oz," which underscores the idea that this take place before the Wizard develops a penchant for inventions.


Mr. Tinker: This story gives Mr. Tinker a complete name, Ezra P. Tinker, and it's been speculated by Nathan Butler on his blog that the P stands for Pascal, particularly since his partner Smith is named Rejano Edison Smith in the short Oziana 1987 story "Button-Bright and the Knit-Wits of Oz."  Mr. Tinker doesn't appear again in any other story until Glenn Ingersoll's The Lost Queen of Oz, in which he's back on the moon, which indicates that his stay in Oz was a short one.


Temporal Magic: This is a rare instance in which time is altered so that Dorothy is able to appear back in the Kansas at the same moment in which she left, a power attributed to Tinker's watch.  This would indicate a magical device, as opposed to a purely mechanical one.  Glinda offers to use temporal magic for Cory in Cory in Oz.






Dorothy and the Magic Belt

Story: As Dorothy explains to her aunt and uncle how Ozma looks in on her every Saturday morning in the Magic Picture to see if she makes a certain sign that means she wants to come visit her in Oz, Dorothy is whisked away, and she appears in the Emerald Palace before Ozma, the Cowardly Lion, Hungry Tiger, Billina, Professor Wogglebug and Tik-Tok.  Billina's had 114 new chicks since she was last there.  Dorothy worries about missing school, but the professor ensures her that a few classes with him and she'll be ahead of most.  Dorothy composes a note for her aunt and uncle, which Ozma sends by means of the Magic Belt, after which she prepares a banquet to celebrate.


In a cave in the Gillikin Country, Nikidik the Younger complains to his father Dr. Nikidik about his decision to stop practicing magic since the decree forbidding it came to pass.  His father insists that he won't cross Glinda and that he'll grow turnips instead.  The youthful Nik storms out, determined to become a wizard like his father and ancestors before him.  He locates a magic book and some powders that were saved from his father's bonfire.  One is an Aging Powder, the other a Youthing Powder.  With that he begins his trek to the Emerald City.


Early the next morning, Dorothy goes for a ride with the Sawhorse to the Munchkin Country.  Nikidik the Younger, meanwhile, reaches the Emerald City, where he uses the Youthing Powder to make the Guardian of the Gates and Soldier with the Green Whiskers little boys.  He follows this up with the Cowardly Lion, Hungry Tiger, Wogglebug and Ozma, who turns back into Tip!  Nik then takes the Magic Belt and wishes himself back in the Gillikin Mountain, where his home is.


Dorothy and the Sawhorse return to the palace to find babies everywhere.  Also, Tik-Tok is acting strange, repeating the word kidikin over and over.  They then ride off to the Tin Woodman's castle to get his and the Scarecrow's help.  They figure out that Tik-Tok was saying Nikidik's name backwards.  The Tin Woodman believes Dr. Nikidik has stopped practicing magic, but they go see Jack Pumpkinhead who informs them that Dr. Nikidik lived in a cave in the Gillikin Mountains not far from Mombi's home.  Sending the Sawhorse to Glinda's, they head there.


The next morning, they're surprised to find a purple crystal palace at the foot of the mountains that hadn't been there before.  After Nik had created it with the Magic Belt, his father had fled into the surrounding woods, fearing the wrath of Glinda.  With the Belt, now hidden under his tunic, Nik summons courtiers, but he soon grows bored.  His attempts at magic apart from the Belt fail, and he determines to learn magic from Mombi, and summons her, along with the cow she was milking.  She is none too pleased at this, so he throws Youthing Powder at her, turning her about his age.  He then explains that he'd like to trade magical secrets with her.  She suggests they first demonstrate their powers, and she turns her cow into a statue.  Nik tries the same spell, and turns a butterfly into quartz.  Nik then makes up some words and secretly uses the Belt to turn a mouse into gold.  Mombi tries it on a ladybug and he uses the Belt to make it come to pass.  Mombi feigns to go along with him and requests to retire.  Later that night, she attempts his "spell" again, and it fails to work, as she'd suspected.


The next day, Dorothy and her party arrive at the palace to confront Nik, demanding the return of the Magic Belt.  With that, Mombi learns the truth of his powers and determines to steal the Belt from him.  She uses a spell, but the Belt protects its wearer, as she discovers.  So, she enchants the cow to attack him.  After tripping over Jack's body, Nik takes out the Youthing Powder and tosses it, getting it on the cow, Mombi and himself.  As the three turn into babies, Dorothy grabs the Belt.  Glinda then arrives on the Sawhorse.  She tells Dorothy to use the Belt to summon Dr. Nikidik.  After learning what's transpired, he apologizes, explaining that he and his son have been unhappy since the work their family had done for centuries was taken away from them.  Glinda then suggests he take up fireworks instead.  He concedes and suggests she keep the children young so that he can raise them both.  Giving Glinda the Aging Powder, he returns to his cave home. 


Dorothy undoes everything Nik had done with the Magic Belt, including the palace, and returns to the Emerald City, where with the Magic Belt, she restores everyone to their proper age and memories.  Tik-Tok is given a medal.  Days later, Dorothy returns home again.


Continuity notes:

Dating: Story takes place on Saturday morning in the fall some time after Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz and The Emerald City of Oz, when Dorothy is still living in Kansas.  As the Wizard is not present in the capital, it seems likely that it's prior to The Road to Oz, at a time when he's training with Glinda.  Dorothy tells her aunt and uncle that Ozma checks in on her every Saturday morning.  This must be in addition to the fact that she also checks in on her every day at 4:00, or the instructions reverted back at some point.


Dorothy's Education: This represents the start of Dorothy's education with Professor Wogglebug in his college.  Eureka in Oz and The Emerald City Mirror confirm this.  It doesn't appear that Dorothy completes her education at this early date, but some time later.


Dr. Nikidik: Dr. Nikidik personality in this story is feigned in order to keep Glinda off his radar while he raises his son and attempts to restore Enilrul (The Witch Queen of Oz and The Master Crafters of Oz.)  For this reason, he's disdainful of his son's attempts to become a magician, knowing it will only draw attention to his plans.  It is unknown who the mother of Nikidik the Younger is.  Nik returns in the sequel Dagmar in Oz.


Mombi: Mombi is transformed into an infant at the story's end by Youthing Powder.  This event is dealt with in this story's sequel Dagmar in Oz.


Youthing Powder: This unusual powder works by reversing time for the individual, so that their memories reverse along with their ages, and they do not remember anything past the age they become.  This is not a permanent effect, however, and if they are magically reverted back to their original age, such as with the Aging Powder, their memories are restored.  This must be a late invention of Dr. Nikidik, as he likely would have traded it to Dr. Pipt, whose wife was interested in becoming younger.  It appears that Ozma's reversal into Tip did not affect Tippetarius, who at this time was with Zim.




The Road to Oz


Baum's fifth Oz book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Story: On her Kansas farm, Dorothy meets the Shaggy Man, and in attempting to help him get to the road to Butterfield (which is not a known town in Kansas today, though it does exist in several surrounding states), ends up getting lost with him and Toto when the path becomes magical and takes them to the Nonestican continent.


The travelers end up on the south shore of the continent, west of Burzee (east of Boboland).  The Shaggy Man isn't concerned about being lost, as he has a magical Love Magnet, which makes all who meet him love him (the love magnet, like the Magic Umbrella and the Water of Life, is one of the few magical devices that works in the Outside World).  They next meet a young Button-Bright (who Baum indicates is about six, though he speaks as if he's far younger), the Foxes of Foxville, and their King Dox, who is so enamored of Button-Bright he transforms his head into a fox's.  They next meet Polychrome, the daughter of the Rainbow, who is lost after falling off the bow of her father's rainbow.  Together, they travel to Dunkiton, a realm of sapient donkeys who are so enamored of the Shaggy Man that they give him a donkey's head.  Traveling northwards, they end up being corralled by the evil Scoodlers who can throw their heads as weapons, and who want to turn them into soup.  After the Shaggy Man bats all of their heads down a deep crevice, they make their way to the edge of the Deadly Desert.  The Shaggy Man summons Johnny Dooit, who instantly appears and makes them a sandboat which will cross the desert.  At last in Oz, they wish to make their way to the Truth Pond to rid themselves of their animal heads.


Continuity notes:


The Blue Bear Rug: The Blue Bear Rug appears later in the story, in the procession for Ozma's birthday, leading before Ozma herself  He died choking on a bone likely before Oz became a deathless land.  As to how he's unable to speak (the story says he lacks for breath, but so do all of the creatures brought to life by the Powder of Life), this is a puzzle.  But he appears again in The Magic Bowls of Oz, in which Button Bright makes for him a skeleton and inserts a bellows so he can move about and talk.  In later stories, such as The Astonishing Tale of the Gump of Oz, he can speak. 


Button-Bright: The explanation of how Button-Bright got to where they found him is explained in The Law of Oz and Other Stories.  Although that story indicates that he was four at the time of these events, Baum's chronology necessitates that he was actually six (a correction that will be made in a future edition).


Johnny Dooit: There is some curiosity about who or what Johnny Dooit is, but he doesn't make another appearance in the original series.  He returns in The Witch Queen of Oz and Do It For Oz.


Dr. Pipt: The Tin Woodman tells the tale of Dyna, a relative of the Crooked Sorcerer who made the Powder of Life.  This is later revealed to be Dr. Pipt, not Dr. Nikidik, although the former used the name of the latter (and vice versa).  It's also revealed that Dyna lied about her Pipt falling down a precipice.  For more on the two Crooked Sorcerers, see the Appendix


Polychrome: The history of Polychrome and her family is detailed in the Oziana #37 story, "As the Rainbow Follows the Rain."


The Shaggy Man: The history of the Shaggy Man is detailed in the short story "From Gold Hill to Butterfield" and Queen Ann in Oz, where it's revealed that his name actually is Shaggy Man, Shagrick Mann. 


The Scoodlers: This race never again appears in the original series, though there is some question as to whether they're related to Mifkits (and Mifkets).  They appear again in David Hulan's The Magic Carpet of Oz and Chris Dulabone's Dagmar in Oz.


Dating: This story takes place from August 15th to August 21st, 1903, the day of Ozma's birthday.  See the Day-to-Day Chronology for more details.  The travelers visit the Pumpkin home of Jack Pumpkinhead, and Dorothy notes his graveyard of heads: each of the three buried heads of Jack Pumpkinhead are dated by month, and reveal chronological information that reveals Baum's indication as to when his stories take place.  The first head was acquired in late October 1901, when Tip first brought Jack to life in The Marvelous Land of Oz.  A short time after the end of that story, Jack expressed his concern to Ozma about his head spoiling, and since he notes that it is not pumpkin season, no ripe pumpkins are available.  Jack and Ozma find a place to plant a pumpkin patch (see "A Pumpkin Patch in Oz").  Jack doesn't have to worry, as his head doesn't spoil until long after the pumpkins are ripe (which takes, on average, four months).  In fact, due to the Powder of Life, his heads last longer than a normal pumpkin would.  The first head lasts six months, noted by the time Ozma carves a new one, and Jack buries the old one on April 9, 1902.  The next head also lasts six months to October 2, 1902.  His third head (Jack says the seeds were not so good in this head) only lasts near to four months and is buried on January 24th, 1903.  Since this is now August 1903, it would date his current head to six months old.  It also establishes a year and ten months between The Marvelous Land of Oz and The Road to Oz.


Crossovers: This is Baum's big crossover book, with several personalities from other fantasy works of his entering Oz to celebrate Ozma's birthday.  Among these are several characters rarely, or not at all, seen outside their respective books:


  1. King John Dough, Chick the Cherub and Para Bruin the Rubber Bear from John Dough and the Cherub.

  2. Santa Claus, along with numerous ryls and knooks, from The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus (Note: There is a change in the conception of the knooks, who in ancient times, according to The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus, used to care for the animals, and now care for the trees of the forest.  This change was also seen in several of Baum's short fantasy stories, particularly as the care for animals went to the animal fairies.)

  3. The Queen of Merryland and the Candy Man of Merryland, from Dot and Tot of Merryland.

  4. The Braided Man from Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz.

  5. The Royal Family of Ev from Ozma of Oz.

  6. Queen Zixi of Ix, King Bud and Princess Fluff of Noland, from Queen Zixi of Ix.

  7. The Good Witch of the North from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.

  8. The Queen of the Field Mice (shown in illustration) from The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.

  9. The vassal kings of Oz are also at the celebration, including the unnamed kings of the Munchkins, Quadlings and Gillikins.  (See the notes for Ozma of Oz for the issue with the King of the Munchkins).


Also, King Dox from Fox Town and King Kickabray from Dunkiton are present.


Bubbles: Ozma brings all of her guests from their respective homes to Oz by means of the Magic Belt, and sends them home by means of the Wizard's magic bubbles (which are steered by Santa to their correct destinations).  In The Gardener's Boy of Oz, it's explained that "by pressing three fingers lightly to one side or other of the bubble, the wayfarer could temporarily change direction and take small sidetrips.  In order to descend at last, the traveler had only to insert a special pin into the bubble and the air would come out gradually, bringing bubble and rider safely to the ground.  The bubbles were toughened so that nothing except the special pin could puncture them, but they were also somewhat porous so that their occupands always had fresh air to breathe."


Socio-Economic Culture of Oz

 The Road to Oz defines Oz as 1) egalitarian and 2) treating animals with the same consideration as humans, 3) deathless, but 4) with the possibility of capitol punishment.  The Emerald City of Oz further underscores and deepens these values, except for the last aspect of capitol punishment, which becomes one of rehabilitation and strictly non-violent solutions to crime and punishment.


1. The Tin Woodman calls the use of money "vulgar" and explains that there is no poverty or wealth in Oz.  That Oz does not use money is also established in The Queer Visitors strips, but was probably not abolished until 1903.  People do for each other out of the goodness of their hearts.  “If we used money to buy things with, instead of love and kindness and the desire to please one another, then we should be no better than the rest of the world,” declared the Tin Woodman. “Fortunately money is not known in the Land of Oz at all.  We have no rich, and no poor; for what one wishes the others all try to give him, in order to make him happy, and no one in all Oz cares to have more than he can use.”


2. Dorothy explains on page 166 that, "in Oz all animals were treated with as much consideration as the people -- 'if they behave themselves.'"  Note that there's no distinction between a talking and non-talking variety (and we don't ever see the latter), but if there is, being treated with "as much consideration as people" still applies to "all animals." 


3. It's repeated several times (and in The Emerald City of Oz) that there is no death in Oz, but that one can be destroyed, and yet there appear to be exceptions to that rule. 


4. The Tin Woodman states on page 163 that "although if one is bad, he may be condemned and killed by the good citizens."  This is the same implied threat that goes for animals.  Everyone, human and animal, has to behave.  This is later eliminated by Ozma, who not only employs the kind-hearted Tollydiggle as jailor, but demands non-violent solutions to criminal behavior.


Truth Pond: This is the first mention of the Truth Pond in the Winkie Country, though Baum will use it again more extensively in The Lost Princess of Oz.  The Truth Pond was created by the Fairy Queen Lurline centuries ago (The Law of Oz and Other Stories), where it plays a significant role in The Law of Oz and "Peer Counseling."







A Short Short Oz Story


Continuity notes: This poetic tribute to L. Frank’s first grandson was inscribed in presentation copies of “Road to Oz.”  It was first reprinted in the Baum Bugle Vol.8, #3; 12/64 IWOOC.  The Buckethead edition has illustrations by Marcus Mebes.








Tales of the Crocheted Cat

The Crocheted Cat: On Christmas Eve, the poor Tucker family complete work on the presents they made for their two children, Cal and Sarah.  One is a crocheted cat with a very long tail, the other a picture storybook.  After the parents go to sleep, the kids sneak down to see their presents, but they get a real surprise when the crocheted cat grows larger and comes to life.  Introducing himself as Theobald (pronounced Tibbald), he explains that if they wake their parents he'll turn back into a toy, and that the reason he was brought to life was to help them understand Christmas and the meaning of love.  The children have been overly concerned about their father losing their job and the fact that they have little money to buy presents or even a proper tree.  To help them see there's a better way, he offers to take them to see the Wiseman in the Forest of Throomb, which is a place represented in the book their father drew for them.  He warns them there's a witch, but that if they don't let themselves get afraid or mixed up by her, she'll have no power over them.


Having them concentrate on the illustration in the book, Cal and Sarah visualize themselves in the Forest of Throomb, but before they can make it to the Wiseman's cottage, the witch emerges from her castle on her golden broom, decked out in gold, and with a band of warriors.  They surround the children, as she offers them riches if they'll bring her with them to the world outside, but the crocheted cat warns them not to give into her temptations.  Angry, she uses her wand to make the cat disappear, and resumes her seduction, claiming their father won't need to work with all the wealth she'll bestow on them.  Upset about what happened to Theobald and anxious that they can't return to their world on their own, they call out for help from the Wiseman.  He emerges from his cottage, a short old man with a wizard's peaked hat and robe, and disperses her warriors with the light of his torch.  He does the same to the witch who tries to defy him, but the light terrifies her as she departs to hide behind a tree.


The Wiseman explains that the price for her offer is to become someone who loves things more than people.  Theobald, he explains, is alive because of the love their family has for each other.  He restores the cat with his torch and explains that the gifts they made their parents are also magic, as they impart love and joy as well, and that their father will have a job in the future because he's a good man and good worker.  As the original Christmas present is still with them, all they need is faithful trust.  Still, Sarah is concerned that their Christmas is so shabby, so he suggests they make some things, and together they hold hands to return through to their living room by visualizing it, something the witch can't do as she's never been there.  But she sneaks into the circle, so the Wiseman turns the light of his torch on her and she flies terrified into the sky. 


Back on the other side, the Wiseman and Theobald help them do arts and crafts together, and decorate the living room, bringing new life and joy to it, and in the morning when their parents wake up, they find their children asleep, and are astounded to see all the work they did overnight.  The Wiseman and live Theobald return to the cottage in the forest, leaving behind the crocheted version and a happy family.


The Case of the Kidnapped Kangaroo: In February, Cal and Sarah wonder if they'd dreamt the whole thing on Christmas Eve, as their parents suggested, so they decide to open up the book again, and there they see Theobald in the Forest of Throomb.  He comes through and explains he was waiting for a week for them to open it, as the Golden Witch is up to mischief in the Wilderness of Wambu, which is a land represented by another picture in the book, which the witch broke into when using her magic to escape the Wiseman's light.  So opening the book to that page, Theobald goes into it.  The Crocheted Cat soon returns with a crocheted kangaroo named Mathilda, and they close the book before the pursuing witch can follow them.   Cal and Sarah's mother had also made her, but has kept her in a drawer until a birthday or Easter.  Mathilda is grief-stricken, however, because her baby Jo had been abducted by the witch and hidden in her magic castle.  While Theobald goes back to the Forest of Throomb to consult the Wiseman, Mathilda explains how after crowning herself Queen and raising her castle, the witch swooped down on them while they were drinking and seized her baby from her.


Theobald returns with a giant purple crocheted elephant named Asterick and a tall giraffe named Rafferty, which the Wiseman had pulled from their mother's imagination to see the kinds of animals she'd be making in the future.  Though he's unable to leave the Forest of Throomb due to the trouble a former servant of the witch, the magician Mugre, is causing, he imparts each of the children a magical torch that lights a beam based on their thoughts and focus.


Turning to the page in which lies the picture of the Wilderness of Wambu, they visualize themselves there and arrive before the wall of the witch's castle.  But the Golden Witch meets them first and tells them that she'll give baby Jo back to Mathilda in exchange for the picture book, otherwise she'll destroy him and take the book anyway.  When she flies off, Asterick the elephant rams against the wall to try and knock it down, but he only bounces back.  Sarah, however, finds that the light from their torches pass through the wall.  So, Rafferty gets the idea that if they focus a large enough beam on the wall, it will allow them to pass through, and it works. 


They next come across an invisible wall, but the torch trick doesn't work on it.  Asterick realizes, though, that it's like the picture in the book, and if they visualize themselves closer to the castle, they'll get there.  His plan works and they arrive in front of the door.  But the witch appears again, and this time attempts to make the animals turn back into lifeless toys with her wand, and she traps Asterick within its power.  Cal then remembers the power of their torches, and he and Sarah aim it at Asterick, which dispels her power.  When they turn it on the witch, she fleets momentarily, but then returns and uses her wand to conjure up a horde of living horrors, skeletons, ghosts, goblins and other unspeakable terrors!


In order to break the grip of fear over the children, Theobald begins dancing with a skeleton.  Asterick and Rafferty comprehend what he's doing and begin dancing with other creatures as well.  This does the job, and soon Cal, Sarah and the army of horrors are dancing away.  Infuriated at this turn of events, the witch departs her castle, urging her minions to attack.  Mathilda takes advantage to sneak into the castle and take back her baby.  When she reemerges, however, the witch begins chanting a spell of confusion to take back control, but the kangaroo urges everyone to shout aloud the truth and keep doing so.  It works, even for the horde, and Cal and Sarah, remembering their torches, shine their lights full on the witch, driving her inside her castle until the lights prove so strong that the castle itself vanishes and the witch is forced to flee into the air.  A skeleton approaches, telling them they've freed them from the power of the witch, and will go on to do no harm.  At that, they begin to fade into a kind of fourth dimension.  Then, saying goodbye to their new and old friends, Cal and Sarah return to their world.


The Enchanted Grotto: When their mother makes them a new crocheted dolphin, Cal and Sarah wait for it to come alive, but when it doesn't they grow puzzled, and soon open their father's book and consult Theobald, living in the Forest of Throomb, to see what the matter is.  He tells them the live dolphin is expected in the ocean on the shore of Farhold Island, but that the spell is yet incomplete.  He explains that all the crocheted animals who came to life were love gifts, but this one is only half so; it's one-sided because Cal and Sarah have become neglectful of their parents and started taking things for granted.  The kids ask if they start doing good deeds, will the magic return and bring the dolphin to life, but Theobald explains that it doesn't work that way.  If it's not genuine love, and they're doing it for a reward, then it's not love.  Cal and Sarah finally get the point and go off to mend their ways.


Later, Theobald meets with them again, and tells them there might be some danger in bringing the dolphin to life.  They must throw the dolphin into the bottomless pool in the Enchanted Grotto, but they must first get through the labyrinth without getting lost or losing their temper, because if they do, they'll turn into statues! 


On their way through the Enchanted Grotto, they use a ball of twine to ensure they don't get lost, but when Cal temporarily loses it, Sarah gets mad and stamps her foot, causing it to turn to crystal.  Cal goes back to retrieve the string, and bumping his head, he loses his temper too, and his fingers turn to crystal.  Yet the children determine to press forward and be more careful, particularly when they note the statues of those turned entirely to stone.


As they proceed forward, a teddy bear tries to knock them down and make them angry so they turn to stone, but Theobald explains that they're not there to steal the valuable golden sands (which glow in the dark and is the reason the others came) but to bring the dolphin to life.  Teddy Bear is surprised by this, as children had mistreated and abandoned him.  The Enchanter brought him to life, dipping him in the bottomless pool, and making him the guardian of the grotto while he's away.  He doesn't know when the Enchanter is coming back, but says they can go about bringing the dolphin to life.


The children soon find out that putting their enchanted limbs in the pool restores them, and dropping the crocheted dolphin in it brings him to life.  He tells them his name is Adolphe, and that as he is a water creature he must stay in the open sea near Farhold Island, but his crocheted version will go back with them to their home.  They promise to come visit him some time, and he welcomes it.


Continuity notes:

Dating:  The months of each story are explicit in the text, though no year is indicated.  However, in The Crocheted Cat in Oz, which takes place a year later, the date indicated is during the earliest years of Ozma's reign.


Time: Theobald is able to stop time in the real world while the kids have adventures in the fantasy one.  This is different from trips to Oz, where time runs coterminously, and reflects the possibility that the realms represented within the bookthe Forest of Throomb, the Wilderness of Wambu, the Enchanted Grotto and Farhold Islandare unconnected to Nonestica and operate along different principles.  Yet, in The Crocheted Cat in Oz, the Wiseman of Throomb knows of Oz and the Wizard, and is able to travel there.  Also, time is held back by Mr. Tinker's watch in Mr. Tinker in Oz, which demonstrates the possibility that this kind of time magic, though rare, is possible, and that these fairylands may be in the same universe.


Farhold Island

History: This story, not published until 1994, is a direct sequel to Tales of the Crocheted Cat, and a direct predecessor to The Crocheted Cat in Oz.


Story: In November, almost a year after the Crocheted Cat was brought to life, Sarah and Cal decide to visit Farhold Island to see how the crocheted dolphin Adolph has fared.  They open their father's book to the image of Farhold Island, visualize themselves there, and arrive on the beach.  Calling out to Adolph, he soon arrives and invites them for a ride on his back.  Like a dolphin he never gets soggy, but he also never has to eat.  He swims towards three inlets, where Cal climbs a coconut tree.  But when pirates arrive and capture the children, Adolph tows away the boat with their treasure chest on it, causing the pirates to leave the kids to go after it.  Determining his sister should get help from Theobald and the Wiseman, Cal sends her off, and she visualizes herself back at the house, where she summons Theobald.

Adolph hides the boat in a cave and goes back for Cal, but too late as the pirates have him aboard their larger ship, the Vixen.  Adolph goes off to summon Conrad the Seahorse, a creature crocheted the prior week, to watch out for Sarah's return while he follows the pirate ship.  Cal is, meanwhile, thrown into a small compartment and later brought before Captain Grimbalt, who ties a cannonball around his neck and puts him on a gangplank.  But seeing Adolph, he jumps off and takes the rope off his neck.  Cal is introduced to Conrad who tells Adolph they need to trick the pirates off the island so that Sarah and Theobald can arrive.  This he does, leading the pirates away as he doubles back and brings everyone to the cave with the treasure.  They discover that the cave has a hidden opening in the back that leads to the Enchanted Wood, guarded by the Golden Falcon.

In the morning, They bury the treasure chest under the water.  Conrad and Adolph warn the children not to eat any of the Enchanter's fruit, as they're dangerous, but when Theobald leads the siblings into the middle of the wood, Cal becomes tempted by a luscious fruit tree where grow the dream quinces.  When one falls before him, he gives in and eats it, causing him to turn purple and fall into an enchanted sleep.  One fruit falls before Sarah, as well, but Theobald knocks it away.  He moves her away from the tree, and as neither can move Cal, they're forced to go in search of the Golden Falcon.

The next morning, they explore the miles-wide Enchanted Wood, and decide to build a fire, hoping it will draw the Falcon.  That evening he arrives, and Theobald explains that the pirates are preventing them from leaving.  The bird, however, warns them of the Enchanter, and explains that although he drove the pirates away years ago, he has no power over the sea, just the earth, and it is only him who can restore Cal, and the Falcon cannot help until he knows his master's wishes.

The next day, they make the long journey back to the beach, and at nightfall, sneak back to the lagoon where they visualize Sarah's playroom.  Adolph makes the journey with them and Sarah gets him crutches so he can walk about.  Opening the book to the Forest of Throomb, they go to the Wiseman's cottage and meet the Wiseman's new apprentice Lone Badger, a Sioux descendent of Black Elk, who had long ago taught the Wiseman.  They also meet the friendly black poodle Hannibal.  Unfortunately, the Wiseman cannot intrude on the Enchanter's territory, and Cal is enslaved both to him and to the tree.  Badger's magic might be able to help, and he can also cast a storm spell to rid them of the pirates.  But they'll have to seek out the Enchanter to restore Cal, for which they may have to offer him something from the treasure chest.  Even still, Cal might have to resist the tree's temptations or be doubly enchanted.

In the morning, the Wiseman gives Sarah a torch, magic nose plugs (to breathe underwater) and magic monocles to help on the way, and tells her they'll most likely find in the treasure chest a ring called the Truth Crystal.  It clouds over when someone tells a lie and shows the true shape of anything that's been transformed or disguised.  She must not offer this to the Enchanter unless he's refused all other bargains.  Returning to Farhold Island, the young Native American boy performs the storm spell, which causes the pirates to set sail.  With the Wiseman's torch, they walk into the Enchanted Wood once more, though Theobald forbids Lone Badger from approaching the tree with the dream quinces.  Badger is able to help waken Cal, though the boy remains purple.  Returning to the shore, Theobald and Adolph go to the bottomless pool and descend into it, emerging in the cave of the Enchanter.  Teddy Bear, the guardian, is happy to see them, but warns them that although he's not wicked, the Enchanter does not give up power. 

Theobald and Adolph enter his chamber and bring him greetings from the Wiseman of Throomb.  Although he knows of the Wiseman, he is not pleased to see them and coldly tells them they're trespassers and intruders.  He also threatens that he could easily take away their lives.  Theobald counters that they're castaways, forced there by the pirates.  The Enchanter looks at his magic quartz crystal and sees that Cal has been awakened and placed beyond his power on the beach.  So, he determines that he'll trade them the antidote for Cal in exchange for the ink of the giant squid.  They are also never to return to his enchanted pool, and must help his guardians drive the pirates away.

Teddy Bear is not happy with the exchange, and Theobald invites him to join them, but the Bear is loyal and doesn't trust children.  Returning to the beach, the crocheted animals and their companions retrieve the hidden treasure chest and find the Truth Crystal, a ring which shrinks to fit on Sarah's finger.  The Cat warns her to keep it hidden from the Enchanter.  The group descend into the water and approach the squid's lair, where Badger magically sends cold water at him, while Sarah shines her torch.  This causes the squid to get scared and shoot out a cloud of ink, which Cal funnels into a flask.  But the ink disrupts the magic of the crocheted animals, and Cal and Sarah are forced to help Theobald and Adolph, who can no longer swim.  Conrad, who avoided the ink, swims off to ask the help of flesh dolphins, who return to help guide the travelers through the corals back to the island.  As Adolph worries he'll never be able to swim again, the flesh dolphins depart to find an ancient magician dolphin who lives nearby.  The Golden Falcon appears to take the ink, but they tell him they'll only hand it to the Enchanter, so the bird flies off to retrieve him.

In the morning, the flesh dolphins return with an antidote for Adolph and Theobald.  Sarah's ring confirms that it works.  After sundown, the Falcon returns with a message from the Enchanter.  Theobald leads the children to his cave where they exchange the squid ink for the formula to disenchant Cal.  The Enchanter tells them the Falcon and Teddy Bear will appear in other forms on the morrow to help them dispel the pirates.

The next day, Sarah uses the ring to discover that the Enchanter's potion only restored Cal's color, but not the enchantment itself, without which Cal cannot return home.  So, Cal is forced to face the tree again.  The temptation proves almost too much, but he resists, and when he returns everyone rejoices that he's free at last.

A giant grizzly bear arrives, and with the magic monocle Sarah sees that it's Teddy.  A Golden Dragon also arrives, but it's revealed to be the Golden Falcon.  Now, because of the squid ink, the Enchanter has power over water, and the two creatures terrify the pirates who finally flee Farhold Island.  Teddy confesses his master's treachery, as he wants the magic ring, but they inform him that Cal broke the spell on his own.  Teddy congratulates him and says he's now a man.  Saying goodbye to Teddy, Adolph, Conrad and the flesh dolphins, Badger promises to return as the Wiseman will now have to keep an eye on the Enchanter to ensure he doesn't turn evil, something Adolph will also watch out for.  Sarah gives the magic ring and implements to Badger, knowing she cannot bring it into her own world, lest they be destroyed.  As they prepare to depart, the Golden Dragon descends down to snatch up Cal (as he was instructed), but they disappear and Teddy laughs all the way to the Enchanted Grotto.

Continuity notes:

Crocheted Animals: This story brings the total number of crocheted animals to a close.  There is Theobald the Crocheted Cat (first of the bunch), who lives with the Wiseman in the Forest of Throomb, Mathilda and her baby Joey, who are crocheted kangaroos that live in the Wildnerness of Wambu with Asterick the crocheted elephant and Rafferty the crocheted giraffe; Adolph (originally spelled Adolphe) the crocheted dolphin and Conrad the crocheted seahorse live in the seas of Farhold Island.  Additionally, the Enchanter has brought a stuffed bear to life called simply Teddy Bear. 


Dating: Story takes place of the course of a week in November, though little time passes in the outside world.  As this story takes place in the year prior to The Crocheted Cat in Oz, see that entry for the year.

Enchanter: It is unknown what later becomes of the Enchanter, as the Wiseman was concerned that his lust for power might turn him to evil.  He and Adolph are keeping an eye on him.

Fairylands: As with its predecessor, Tales of the Crocheted Cat, Farhold Island is part of the same fairyland as the Wilderness of Wambu and the Forest of Throomb, all of which are represented in the book illustrated by Cal and Sarah's father.  As is revealed in The Crocheted Cat in Oz, the Wiseman knows of Oz and its Wizard, which indicates that they are neighboring fairylands, though whether on the same Nonestican hemisphere or another fairyland entirely is not known.  In Throomb, at this time, animals can't speak. 



The Crocheted Cat in Oz


History: This is the final story of Hugh Pendexter III's "Tales of the Crocheted Cat" series, which feature characters who originally appeared in two original non-Oz fantasy adventures, Tales of the Crocheted Cat (1976) and its sequel, Farhold Island (1994), both illustrated by Patricia Ambrose, which places those stories in the larger Ozian mythos. 


Story: After the Wiseman of Throomb instructs his apprentice Lone Badger to perform a fog bank spell in the morning, his companion Theobald the Crocheted Cat spots the Wizard of Oz and Dorothy welcoming guests to Ozma's birthday party in the crystal ball.  The Wiseman hadn't seen the Wizard since the time he became a genuine wizard.  The crystal globe had been set to keep an eye on the Golden Witch, and they soon spot her hiding in the gardens, and realize she somehow escaped the Wilderness of Wambu into Oz.  As a magic worker, the Wiseman cannot intrude into Oz without permission, but he permits Theobald and Badger to go warn Ozma and capture her.  That night, Theobald watches her sneak into the palace and transform into a grasshopper.


In the morning, Badger decides to surprise the Wiseman by performing the fog bank spell indoors, but he instead winds up summoning the Daemon of Fog!  The Wiseman placates the Daemon, telling him he's the wisest of the Lords of Enchantment, and that they summoned him for his advice on their troubles with the Golden Witch.  The Daemon suggests they go to Oz, and places a patch on Theobad's chest, which he can use to summon him.  After he departs, the Wiseman scolds Badger for tinkering with a spell, as he could have summoned up a demon instead of a daemon, and warns him he'll take away his magic completely if he does anything as foolish as that again.


With supplies, magical and mundane, and a voice box to keep in touch, Badger and Theobald use the crystal globe to visualize the inside of Ozma's palace, but just as they're transporting, the poodle Hannibal places his paws on them, and the three of them appear in the palace, where the dog is surprised to find he can speak.  Badger spots the grasshopper (that is the witch), but when he tries to catch her she transforms into a golden crow, and turns Badger into a badger (with purple stripes).  She flies off to another room, where all of Ozma's presents are being stored for her impending birthday celebration.  After searching through them, she settles on one and takes it.  With the Wiseman's spyglass they see the Witch traveling north.  Theobald, meanwhile, stumbles upon Frieda, Ozma's pet piglet, who tells them that Ozma is at Glinda's.  The party ask her if she'd help them navigate Oz, as they mean to track the witch.  She agrees and they put her in Theobald's backpack.  With Badger atop Hannibal, they race off into the Gillikin Country.


Stopping for a rest in the Great Gillikin Forest.  Frieda advises they enlist the help of King Magnus the Elephant, who she met when she came to the palace on a state visit.  The party worry about wild cats, but Frieda tells them that no one kills anyone in Oz, and that the forest trees grow special fruits to satisfy the different animals providing all the nourishment carnivores need.  In the Emerald City, the Keeper of the Royal Menagerie feeds the animals a special grain meal made up by the Wizard that tastes like whatever food each animal wants.  Soon, the monkey sentries cry out, summoning Oran, an orangutan of the King's High Council who leads them to a clearing where they meet Nippur the jaguar, Topper the giraffe and King Magnus.  He remembers Frieda from when he met her at court and when Ozma visited the Gillikin forest a year prior.


Magnus sends out word to his subjects, including Gorble the wild turkey, to locate the witch.  After Magnus feeds his guests, Mika, a capuchin monkey returns with wrapping paper from the gift the Witch stole.  It tells them that the gift came from Silico the Glassblower.  Mika says the gift was a glass dome.  They reason that Silico must live in Ev; as they are concerned about why the Witch stole the glass dome, they determine to go there.  King Magnus commands Yeksh, a disgruntled vulture, to keep an eye on the Witch, and Theobald gives him the Wiseman's voicebox to communicate with them.  To warn her of the threat, Magnus heads to the Emerald City, knowing Ozma will soon return with Glinda to celebrate her birthday.  With the magic Spyglass of the Wiseman, Theobald sees the witch peering into the glass dome, which is like a paperweight, but inside appears to house an entire living world!  They reason that the Witch must be seeking a way to enter it so she can rule.  The Witch discovers her spies and flies off north with Yeksh in pursuit.


In the early morning, Badger, Hannibal and Theobald set off, but the cat and dog fall into a pit and cannot escape.  Badger goes in search of help.  Two men happen by, Quibble and Pettifog of Legomania, but they carp, equivocate and dispute over trivialities (such as debating if they're real, or what might go wrong if they help), and won't assist them, determining only that they'll report to the Town Council.  Badger ends up in Legotown and tries to get help from them, but they are just as bad, claiming they must first ascertain who owns the pit, whether those in it really want to come out, and that it must be put in writing and notarized to absolve them of responsibility if anything goes wrong.  Irritated, Badger quotes a fundamental law of Oz, stating that "everbody is expected to help everybody else wherever possible."  When they equivocate further, he calls them hot air balloons without brains or hearts.  They send him to Scholius, who was exiled for declaring that the law had a spirit as well as a letter.


The old scholar lives in a nearby cottage and welcomes Badger and agrees to help him with his friends.  After they're freed, Scholius invites them to eat and spend the night.  There they discuss who really lives in the glass dome and whether they're being protected or kept prisoner.  Yeksh contacts them through the voicebox telling them the witch was unable to cross the Deadly Desert.


In the morning they bid goodbye to Scholius and head to the Deadly Desert.  They spot the Witch and shine their torch on her, but it turns out to be Yetch enchanted by her shape-swap spell.  She had taken his form, enlarged it, and flew over the Desert, telling Yeksh that if she makes it, she'll switch back.  Soon enough, this transpires, though she fails to return the vulture back to his normal size, and Yeksh must contend with being seven feet tall.  Badger and Hannibal grow cross with him for his constant complaining and blaming everyone else for his troubles, so Theobald acts as a mediator between them.  The Crocheted Cat then remembers the Daemon of Fog, and summons him through his patch.  The Daemon appears and after listening to their dilemma turns them into mist so that the vulture can fly them over the Desert with him flying below, creating rain as he passes over.  Once in Ev, he restores them, and Badger is happy to find himself in his own body, though Yeksh is upset that neither the Fog Daemon or Badger can return him to his normal size. 


After the Daemon departs, they head northeast to a tower spewing smoke that appears to be the Glassblower's factory.  Yet when they attempt to cross the drawbridge, arrows fly out at them, knocking off Theobald and piercing Yeksh's neck and wing.  Badger breaks off the arrows and removes them, and with salve and a charm spell, heals Yeksh of his painful wounds.  Soldiers question what they were doing and if they're spies of the Witch who passed over their territory.  While Hannibal is put in a kennel, Badger and Yeksh are brought before the Baron.  In the castle, they find Theobald and Frieda safe, and Hannibal soon joins them after having had to fight the other kennel dogs.  He cheers up at dinner, though, and the Baron explains that Ev, Rinkitink, Hiland/Loland and the Red Jinn all buy their glassware from the Glassblower.  He invites them to join him for a witch hunt at dawn.


The next day, Theobald spies the Witch heading to the Glassblower's factory.  The Chief Magician casts a magic resistance spell over the Baron's army and the Baron gives Badger a bow.  Theobald's group depart and soon arrive at the glassworks, where they're met by a robot made entirely of glass, whose leg was broken by the Witch.  He asks them to help the Glassblower, who's hiding under a glass dome as the Witch assaults him with a cloud of darkness.  Badger uses his torch, while the glass robot opens a furnace so that more light shines in.  The Witch turns him into a glass cockroach, but the Glassblower sees her weakness and illuminates his bowl.  Everyone dashes into the dark cloud.  Theobald and Hannibal use a pouch of sneezing potion to prevent her casting spells while Badger's torch penetrates the darkness.  Seeing she's losing the battle, she mounts her broom and flies out the roof.  When Yeksh pursues her, she stops him in his tracks by turning him only eight inches tall.  Yet in her haste, she's forced to depart without her bag.


Silico introduces himself to his rescuers and departs briefly to host the Baron's army that have just arrived.  At the reception that follows, Frieda happily greets her mistress Ozma, who has arrived with the Cowardly Lion, Hungry Tiger, Glinda, Dorothy, and the Wizard, who admires the Wiseman's magical implements.  The travelers explain all that's occurred since they arrived, and inside the Witch's bag, they retrieve the glass dome, which Silico delivers to Ozma in person, explaining its secret:


The Titan Saturn was released from his prison under Mt. Helicon by the Olympian Immortals in exchange for his "help in setting aside a time world," in which the Olympians wish to live after finding modern life more than they could cope with.  Creating a loop of a hundred years which Saturn pulled from the ancient past, he created a self-contained miniature world in which he placed the Olympians and their subjects.  Having heard of Silico, Vulcan the Immortal of Metalworking and Fire sent Saturn to the Glassblower to request a glass container to protect the world.  With Vulcan's help, the outer dome was made of a special steel-glass alloy.  A second interior dome keeps the heavens in place.  Not trusting the world to the ocean bottom or potential attack by the Nome King, Silico sent it with the Queen of Ev to bring to Ozma for protection. Ozma consults with Glinda, the Wizard and Dorothy, who agree she should accept it.  Silico gives her instructions for entering the Dome World through a Time Road should she need to visit it.  Ozma then invites all of them, including the Wiseman, to her party on the morrow, and with the Magic Belt restores Yeksh to his proper size, but with the caveat that every time he complains he'll shrink two inches.  If at the end of the year, he hasn't shrunk much, she'll take off the spell; otherwise, it'll stay on another year until he learns.  Glinda then restores the glass robot and the Wizard repairs his broken leg.  The travelers from Throomb then visualize the Wiseman's study and materialize there.  The Wiseman informs them that the Witch is resting in the northern mountains near the Nome Kingdom. 


The next morning is Ozma's birthday and they visualize themselves in the palace, where they begin a week-long celebration.  In that time, they locate the Witch.  With the Magic Belt, Ozma sends her back to the Wilderness of Wambu.  The Dome World is affixed to an emerald table and placed in the corner of a private reception room.  Toto befriends Hannibal and shows him the sights.  Hannibal even catches Eureka stalking piglets and drops her in an Ozade fountain.  At last everyone returns home, content with the memories of the places they visited and new friends they made.


Continuity notes:

Animals of the Great Gillikin Forest: The community of animals in the Great Gillikin Forest are here introduced, including Oran the orangutan, Nippur the jaguar, Topper the giraffe, Gorble the wild turkey, Mika the capuchin monkey, Yeksh the vulture, and the king of the forest, King Magnus the elephant.  There are also monkey sentries who keep watch.  King Magnus, Nippur, Oran, Topper and Gorble appear again in Wooglet in Oz.


Daemon of Fog: A generally benevolent entity, a kind of fog elemental, called by the Wiseman one of the "Lords of Enchantment."  He dines on the same kind of food (mist, vapor and dew) that Polychrome and her sisters dine on.


Dating: Internal evidence indicates this story takes place from August 16-27.  Page 44 erroneously states that Dorothy, the Shaggy Man and Johnny Dooit crossed the Deadly Desert last week, when in fact it should state "last year," as per the author's letter to me, which states that this story "begins at a birthday party after the one in The Road to Oz and before The Emerald City."  This dates means there is an overlap between this story and the journey of the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, Wogglebug, Gump, Sawhorse and Jack Pumpkinhead in the Interplanetary Dispatches.  This actually works as the Red Jinn hadn't met Jack until the book Jack Pumpkinhead in Oz, nor is there mention in this story of the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, Wogglebug, Gump or Sawhorse being at Ozma's party.


Dorothy: The appearance of Dorothy in this story indicates that she was brought back by Ozma (or Glinda) to celebrate Ozma's birthday party.


Legomania: Nothing to do with legos, this is a Gillikin town of people who think and behave legalistically, quibble and carp over trivialities, and is similar in concept to towns like Flutterbudget Center and Rigmarole Town in the Quadling Country (The Emerald City of Oz) in that it keeps certain together groups who share a similar psychological imbalance (and who don't wish to be helped).  Quibble and Pettifog are from Legomania.  Individuals can depart these towns if they grow out of the sickness, as was the case with Scholious who was exiled for declaring the law had a spirit as well a letter, and came to see their legalistic attitude as ridiculous and wrong.


Olympian gods: This is the first story (in terms of when it was written) to depict the existence of the ancient Greek gods as actual personages.  They're not called gods here, not even by Saturn the Titan, but Immortals, and appear less powerful than the myths depicted them.  Because they have trouble coping with the modern world (the late 19th century), they rescue Saturn from his imprisonment under Mt. Helicon where they'd long ago placed him in exchange for his help in leaving the world behind.  (It is noted in Lurline and the White Ravens of Oz that the gods require the worship of mortals to thrive, and this may explain their psychological difficulty with the modern world.)  With the help of Vulcan (the immortal of fire and metalworking) and Silico the Glassblower, Saturn creates an alternate reality by borrowing a century from the ancient past and putting it into a loop.  Silico then enwraps Olympus and this time loop in a glass dome underneath another dome of the heavens, allowing the Olympian immortals to live forever in this enchanted Dome World.  Ozma keeps it safe in her palace in the Emerald City, and even has a portal in which she can enter this world.  It is unknown if Poseidon/Neptune is amongst them, as he appeared last in The Pearl and the Pumpkin, The Golden Goblin, and is mentioned by King Anko in Pendexter's Wooglet in Oz.


Ozma's First Year: The text indicates that Ozma and Glinda worked a lot of protective magic around the country in her first year.  


Pigs: As the Oziana story "Pigmentation" names Ozma's pet piglet Peggy, and Pendexter names her Frieda, it can be assumed that either the piglet has a nickname, or two names, e.g., Peggy Frieda.


Red Jinn of Ev: This story confirms that the Red Jinn and Ozma and her court were first introduced as early as 1904, which works because he hadn't met Jack Pumpkinhead until the book of his name, which is explained by the fact that Jack was away in the Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz adventures.


Shape-Swap Spell: Other than the name, this spell used by the Golden Witch to transform herself into the vulture Yetch, and Yetch into her, is identical to the "switcheroo spell" that Mombi used to transform Ozma and Tippetarius in The Marvelous Land of Oz and The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz trilogy.


Silico the Glassblower: This near-human glass artist lives in Ev.  What relationship he has with Silica, the Royal Glassworks of Oz (from The Hidden Prince of Oz), is unknown, but there appears to be one.





The Flying Thief of Oz


Story: When the Magnificent Mennen flies onto Henry's farm, he offers Dorothy a flight aboard his plane, which leads the pair to the land of Oz.  There, Mennen disappears, and Ozma and the Wizard are shocked to discover a theft of the Royal Treasury.  Using deductive clues, the Wizard struggles when he discovers that his main suspects are the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and Cowardly Lion.  


Continuity notes:

Dating: There is some discrepancy with the dating of this story.  The text indicates that it must take place while Dorothy and her aunt and uncle are still living in Kansas.  Eureka's trial (from Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz) is said to have taken place a year earlier, which would place this in 1903. The titular flyer, however, says he just "returned from the Dominguez Air Meet in California," which is an event that took place from January 10th-20th, 1910.  Even if one were to date the Oz books by their publication date (which The Royal Timeline of Oz does not), the 1910 figure doesn't work, as Dorothy, Em and Henry would be living in Oz at that time.   Therefore, one has to chalk up mention of the Dominguez Air Meet to historian interpolation and error, or to an earlier unrecorded meet.  Prior to 1904, the Wright Brothers (who the titular aviator mentions) were still developing and testing their Wright Flyer, which the Smithsonian Institute calls "...the first powered, heavier-than-air machine to achieve controlled, sustained flight with a pilot aboard." This is controversial, of course, given the earlier achievements of one Gustave Whitehead whose claims precede the Wright Brothers by two years. Yet, as the Wizard knows what an aviator is, had heard of planes, but never seen one, the 1904 date works well enough.










The Braided Man of Oz


History: Not to be confused with the Oziana 1997 story of the same name. 


Story: Believing his flutters have been stolen, the Braided Man convinces his friend Gorry, a tamed wooden gargoyle, that they must leave Pyramid Mountain in search of them.  But after several hours, Gorry ends up flying too high and is hit by a USAF jet, which causes him to lose his wing and plummet down to the ground.  Gorry utters a magic spell that protects them as they land in the Deadly Desert.


The pair are approached by a group of mechanical men.  They're friendly, however, and as it's cold, set up a fire for them, which they fall asleep besides.  Gorry awakens later that night to find on of the robotic men attempting to snuff out the fire.  Gorry pursues him just as a sandstorm emerges.  The robots Peter and Paul explain to the Braided Man that the robot Gorry's pursuing, 034D Hc84, is a damaged model, who got away from his scientist-creators.  They've been searching for him for years, as he's dangerous and drains energy from his victims to survive.  Peter brings the Braided Man to a German Panzer that they use for water storage and get him a drink, but he worries about his lost friend.


Gorry, meanwhile, doesn't know where he is, but hearing the sound of flutters follows it, only to fall down a hole atop 034D HC84.  The robot attacks and drains Gorry of his energy.


The next day, the Braided Man goes searching for his companion, but the heat from the sands burns off his shoes.  Just then, he discovers the Silver Shoes, which he puts on.  Cleaning them from the sand while wishing he could find Gorry, he transports to his location.  To his horror, he discovers his friend is dead.  Paul later retrieves Gorry's wing as the Braided Man is burying him.  Wishing he could bring him back to life as Ozma brought to life Jack and the Gump, he's suddenly transported to Ozma's throne room.  She hears his plea and agrees to help, and Gorry is soon returned to life.


A celebration ensues and the mechanical men are brought to the Emerald City.  The Tin Woodman takes a liking to them and offers them a place to settle in the Winkie Country, which they accept.  During Gorry and the Braided Man's journey back to Pyramid Mountain, the Silver Shoes fall off back into the desert, but he's happy to discover and retrieve his lost flutters, fluttering in the air before him.


Continuity notes:

Dating: Takes place over the course of two days in January.  There is no explicit date for the story, save that it must take place before Elanor Kennedy's "The Braided Man of Oz," in Oziana 1997, in which he's been visiting the Emerald City each year for Ozma's birthday, and by story's end is invited to live (at least part of the time) in the Emerald City.  This story explains how he comes to know Ozma in the first place, as well as how he gets back and forth.  The characters are mentioned briefly in Hurray for Oz, where it's indicated that its takes place 20 years before that story, which would place it in 1968.  But because it must take place before Kennedy's "The Braided Man of Oz," which takes place before The Lost Princess of Oz, this dating reference must be ignored.


Deadly Desert: Gorry's spell, prior to landing on the Deadly Desert, protected the Braided Man from burning up, and allowed him to traverse the desert, albeit not without suffering some of the effects of cold and heat, not to mention the loss of his shoes.


Silver Shoes: One of the few stories in which this magical footwear belonging once to the Wicked Witch of the East appears, although in this tale the Lionel mistakenly refers to them as the Ruby Slippers, a mistake the editor should have fixed.  The Braided Man finds them in the Deadly Desert, and it returns there.  That no one notices them when he travels to the Emerald City for the first time may be because his garments are so long they cover them up.  The Silver Shoes appear next in The Witch Queen of Oz.


Wooden Gargoyle: The fact that Gorry is a tamed wooden gargoyle is a story yet untold.  How many others there are is unknown.  It also indicates that at least one wooden gargoyle survived the fire that destroyed their home (see The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1), and it's clear from Ruggedo in Oz and The Emerald City Mirror that more did as well.








Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz


History: Book 45 of the Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!  The third Oz story Baum wrote takes place, not in Oz, but in the U.S. when the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman, Jack Pumpkinhead, Wogglebug, Sawhorse and Gump take their "first vacation" from the Emerald City to the United States to visit with Dorothy and numerous others.  Hijinks ensue.  See below for details.


Continuity Notes: The characters departed in mid-August, and according to The Royal Proclamation—an official decree by Ozma (a full-page prior in the very first strip)—dated 1904, this was announced as being the second year of her reign, which is established by her inauguration in July 1902 (even though her ascension to the throne took place in the year prior, as seen in The Marvelous Land of Oz). Ozma approved of their visit in March 1904.


Their adventures were recorded by Baum and McDougall (courtesy of magic caps which rendered them invisible) who followed them, recording their tales and drawing their images for the Philadelphia Syndicate.  The first issue of the Ozmapolitan records a letter from Dorothy in which she says she's aware of their coming visit, had even petitioned for them to come, knows that Baum wrote her story down in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (and its sequel which she read an advance copy of), has met him and McDougall, and is looking forward to seeing the stage play. That she also knows who Ozma is places the events of this story after Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz


Stellar Itinerary:

Through 14 in-universe publicity articles (called "Interplanetary Dispatches") leading up to this strip, the Ozites make very brief trips by several different heavenly bodies, which appears to indicate that Oz is on another planet.  However, there's considerable evidence that these planetary bodies exist within the fairy realm (as depicted in The Silver Princess in Oz and Ozoplaning with the Wizard of Oz), which appear to suggest a hollow earth conception.  These include:

1. Unknown planet in the Argo system (possibly called Argo): August 17-18, 1904

2. The North Star: August 19

3. One of the planets of the Little Bear Constellation: August 20

4. One of the seven stars of the Dipper: August 21

5. Uranus: August 22

6. Neptune: August 23

7. Saturn: August 24

8. Jupiter: August 25

9. One of the Astrepoids: August 26

10. Mars: August 27

Almost all of these know of terrestrial animals (birds, horses, camels) and speak the English language (even those that seem more primitive).  Mars itself knows of Oz and earth.  Additionally, the real North Pole (the star Polaris) and the Big Dipper (Ursa Major) are stars, not planets.  Also, the Gump wouldn't be able to fly to each in a matter of a day (no matter how fast he is, and he's not as fast as Santa's sleigh, as these strips demonstrate).  All of this is further evidence that these spheres are either fairy ones (like Anuther Planet from Silver Princess), or that Baum was advancing a different conception of what planets and starts are than what modern science currently postulates.


U.S. Itinerary (original version):

Baum and McDougall followed the visitors and recorded their actions, but the stories were arranged into a format dictated by the newspaper (and its editors).  This resulted in a disjointed telling of events, which focused on episodic incidents rather than a logical sequence of events.  The format also required a story a week, irrespective of when it occurred.  This resulted in the Visitors seemingly jumping from one location to another without rhyme or reason.  There's also a lack of geographic information in several stories.  All that can be gleaned from the date of publication is that the episode in question must occur prior to it.  Reilly & Lee's The Visitors of Oz contextualizes several of these events in a chronological order that makes more sense, and this is how the Royal Timeline of Oz places them.  Here, however, is a listing of the episodes as presented in the original strips.

1. The Visitors start off at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Missouri, sometime between August 28 and September 3d, 1904. They start off at the athletic field and end up in the man-made Cascades before departing.

 ("How the Adventurers Lost and Found Themselves"; "How the Tin Woodman Escaped the Magic Flood").


2. Prior to 9/18: Their next stop is at an unknown seashore, where the Sawhorse gets frightened by a German submarine. 

("How the Strangers Found Themselves Between the Auto and the Deep Sea")


3. Prior to 9/25: They head to Dorothy's farm in Kansas, where they frighten a field hand and babysitter (Aunt Em and Uncle Henry appear to be away, either purchasing supplies or dealing with bank issues in nearby Topeka).  The Sawhorse also saves Dorothy from her uncle's bull.

("How Uncle Eil Laughed Too Soon"; "How the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman Met Some Old Friends"; "How the Saw-horse Saved Dorothy's Life")


4. Prior to 10/16: In an unnamed town, the Visitors visit a cosmetologist.

("How the Ozites Met a Beauty Doctor")


5. Prior to 10/23: The Visitors are in Arizona, where they encounter a baboon and his trainer. 

("How the Adventurers Encountered an Unknown Beast")


6. Prior to 10/30: They apparently pick up Dorothy on their way to Iowa for the Jones County Fair.  There, the Scarecrow again enters the Sawhorse in a race (he did this at the end of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, when he had the Sawhorse race Jim the Cabhorse) that becomes a fiasco when Jack Pumpkinhead (whose riding jockey on the Sawhorse) loses his head, while they're in the lead, knocking into each of the jockeys in their wake.

("Jack Pumpkinhead and the Sawhorse Win a Race and Incite a Riot; The Wogglebug Restores Harmony")


7. Prior to 11/6: The Visitors head to an unnamed mountain, where the Gump once again gets trapped upon a jackdaws' nest.  The events that follow are very similar to what happened to them in The Marvelous Land of Oz, though no one brings the similarity up.  Once again, the Scarecrow ends up stuffed with money.  This time, the Scarecrow is robbed of his cash by pretty girls at church fair in a pretty town.  He ends up with English and Canadian money in the excess of three thousand dollars.  There is no explanation as where this money goes (the Visitors seem without it again in the later strips).  This episode seems apocryphal.

("The Scarecrow Becomes a Man of Means in Spite of the Girls at a Church Fair")


8. Prior to 11/13: The Visitors end up in another unnamed village where Jack again loses his head in a well.  The Wogglebug returns with seidlitz powder, which causes the water in the well to rise up, saving Jack's head.  Perhaps this is where the Scarecrow's money went.

("How the Wogglebug Proved His Knowledge of Chemistry")


9. Prior to 11/20: Now in a big city, the Wogglebug hears a poor girl's request for a turkey on Thanksgiving.  The Tin Woodman says he's spotted some flying nearby, so the Wogglebug and the Gump round up three wild turkeys and a hornbill, which they present to her.  The original illustrations shows him presenting the girl with three killed turkeys and one killed hornbill.  Shanower's illustration presents them alive.  In either case, it seems very out of character for the Ozian company to have done this, especially the kindhearted Tin Woodman who cries when stepping upon a flower.  As with #7 above, this episode seems apocryphal.

("How the Wogglebug Got a Thanksgiving Dinner")


10. Prior to 11/27: Possibly in the same city, a boy tells the Scarecrow about telegraph cables, while the Scarecrow tells him of being brought to life by the farmer who constructed him.

("The Scarecrow Tells a Fairy Tale to Children and Hears an Equally Marvelous True Story")


11. Prior to 12/4: Likely in the same city, Jack trades in the Sawhorse to get money to buy him a saddle, only to discover that he's lost the Sawhorse. After he gets a refund for the saddle, the money-lender wants to charge interest for the Sawhorse, but he breaks the glass and gets out.

("Jack Pumpkinhead Pawns the Sawhorse")


12. Prior to 12/11: Dorothy comes to stay with them in their rooms provided by the mayor.  This seems to indicate that the city they're in is Topeka, however, it may be that they once again picked her up.  Dorothy had planned to see the Wizard of Oz musical with them, and this may be when this occurs.  If so, this is while the stage-play was yet only on Broadway.  This would make the city they're in New York.  While here, the Scarecrow, Tin Woodman and Wogglebug perform magic tricks her for amusement.

("Dorothy Spends an Evening With Her Old Friends and is Entertained With Wonderful Exhibitions")


13. Prior to 12/18: The Visitors head to the Laughing Valley to bring miniature toy-versions of themselves that they'd made with magic.

("How the Wogglebug and his Friends Visited Santa Claus")


14.Prior to 12/25: Another unnamed city.  This time a mother implores the Visitors to find her missing child.  Several of the visitors go off without enough information, but the Wogglebug uses his intelligence and magic to discover her.

("How the Wogglebug Found a Lost Child and Gave a Lesson in Heraldry")


15. Prior to 1/1/05: Another unnamed city.  Another poor girl is grieving, this time because she can't afford an automobile.  The Scarecrow magics one for her, which causes all kinds of trouble and crashes, teaching both a lesson.

("The Scarecrow Presents a Magic Automobile to a Little Girl")


16. Prior to 1/8/05: While standing around facing the walls (so as not to disturb sleeping neighbors), the Tin Woodman hears a fire-truck and rushes off to save a poodle from a burning building.

("How the Tin Woodman Became a Fire Hero")


17. Prior to 1/15/05: In an unnamed village, the Tin Woodman grants two brothers a wish each.  One wishes to be good, which by the end of the next day, has proved disastrous.  So his brother uses his wish to make him as he was.  The Tin Woodman learns a lesson and flies off in the Gump.

("The Two Wishes")


18. Prior to 1/22/05: An unnamed town, the Visitors discover a nasty kid who torments a cat, so they perform a switcheroo spell, where the boy ends up in the body of the cat (and the cat in the body of the boy).  The boy learns a valuable lesson in cruelty, and is switched back.

("Tim Nichols and the Cat")  This concept and basic theme are echoed in Ruth Plumly Thompson's King Comics short story "The Enchanted Cat."


19. Prior to 1/29/05: An unnamed town.  Jack Pumpkinhead thinks he's doing a disabled veteran a favor when he magically grants him his leg back, but that proves disastrous for the veteran, and Jack is asked to take it away, learning a lesson about interfering in the process.

("Mr. Wimbles Wooden Leg")


20. Prior to 2/5/05: An unnamed location, the Tin Woodman is struck by lightning and becomes magnetized, so that every metallic thing around him is drawn to him.

("A Magnetic Personality")


21. Prior to 2/12/05: In an unnamed town, the Wogglebug helps poor Nan by giving her a magic button that enables to become the best cook in the country. 

("Nan's Magic Button")


22. Prior to 2/19/05: An unnamed town.  Mr. Jubb is ashamed of his small size, so the Wogglebug grants him lozenges to help him achieve the size he wants.  His daughter Eliza, however, comes across them, and grows to the size of a giant.

("Eliza and the Lozenges")


23. Prior to 2/26/05: An unnamed town or city: The Wogglebug encounters a beggar, who assists in getting alms for, only to discover that he's a con-artist.  A local policeman tells him that beggars are good for society because they encourage people to be charitable.

("The Wogglebug Encourages Charity")


The Wogglebug gets separated from his companions and goes off on his own adventures:


1. Main Street: Unnamed City: The Wogglebug discovers in a shop-window a dummy whose wearing a "Wagnerian Plaid" dress.  His fetishizes over it to the point of obsession, and gets a job to earn money to buy it.  But when he returns with enough  money to purchase it, it's already been sold to a wealthy woman.  After he pursues her, and nearly gets pummeled by her husband, she gives the dress to her maid Bridget.  By coincidence the Wogglebug gets an invitation to a ball which Bridget is attending.  The Wogglebug ends up starting a brawl, losing Bridget and his dress.  She sells the dress to a second-hand dealer, and it's purchased by a Swedish widow, who, of course, the Wogglebug bumps into.  She takes advantage of him and has him pay for dinner and dessert for her and her children.  Then, to keep him away from her house, she sprays insecticide.  The widow trades the dress to a wash lady, who, when the Wogglebug spots her, thinks is the devil and runs away.  She sells it to a Chinese man, who makes a robe out of it.  The Wogglebug sees and offends him, but manages to tear off a large piece of it and runs off.  Pursued by the Chinese man, intent on killing him, the Wogglebug gets aboard a balloon and floats off.


2. The Wogglebug reveals himself to have wings (although not strong enough for flying) and jumps off the balloon.  He encounters an Arabian family.  After convincing the sheik that it's bad luck to kill a wogglebug, the Arab lets him live, but takes his much coveted Wagnerian plaid, which he makes a vest from, returning to the Wogglebug a small piece made into a tie.


3. Content, the Wogglebug walks across an unnamed desert and finds a jungle filled with talking animals that are ruled by a weasel. After a silly encounter with them, the Wogglebug walks across the forest and plains, and ends up back in the city he started from.  This is problematic since, besides this instance, Baum doesn't demonstrate that there are talking animals anywhere except in fairy realms, and not in the Outside World.  It seems that the Wogglebug passed through a dimensional gate both in the balloon, and later on foot when he departed.


The Visitors from Oz: (Not to be confused with the original story written by Martin Gardner entitled Visitors from Oz or the 2005 Hungry Press volume below.) 

In 1960, Reilly & Lee had Jean Kellogg repurposed these stories into a more arc-driven chronological framework, adding new stories and editing older ones, all re-illustrated by Dick Martin.  There's even a postscript ending.  The text adds a scenario where the Ozian visitors meets Aunt Em and Uncle Henry, but this has to be seen as artistic license and excised. This book does not include the story from The Woggle-bug Book, The Unique Adventures of the Woggle-bug.  In this iteration, one of the main purposes of their trip is to visit with Dorothy.  This seems incidental in the Queer Visitors strips (in fact, it appears they accidentally stumble upon her farm), although the Ozmapolitan of 1904 indicates that Dorothy was expecting them, and had plans to see The Wizard of Oz musical with them.  The Visitors of Oz adds to this by indicating that they're going to visit on Dorothy's birthday.


U.S. itinerary (expanded version):

The corrected version shows that the Visitors started out in Brooklyn New York, and traveled west to Virginia, Missouri and then Texas, stopping over briefly in Oklahoma and ending up in the Rocky Mountains.  Realizing their mistake (that they went too far west), they leave Colorado and head east, where they finally find Kansas.  There adventures after leaving Dorothy are not detailed here (leaving room for the remaining Queer Visitors strips), save their departing trip when they head to the Laughing Valley to meet up with Santa in late December.

1. "How the Visitors Arrived from Oz": This opening is an entirely new adventure original to this book, and deals with the Visitors discovery of Playland amusement park and the son of the owner, Jimmy, who the Scarecrow rescues after the boy attempts to save Jack Pumpkinhead's head.  This story presents a slight problem as Playland Amusement Part wasn't built until 1927.  More likely, the New York park they visited was one of the three amusement parks at Coney Island, Luna Park, Dreamland, or the Steeplechase Park, which had a roller coaster, merry-go-round, Ferris wheel, and the architecture pictured at this time in history.  August 29.


2. "How the Travelers Told Their Tales": This continues the Visitor's time with Jimmy, as they tell him their stories of how they came to be.  In some respects, it's an adaptation of "The Scarecrow Tells a Fairy Tale to Children and Hears an Equally Marvelous True Story," but it differs in that two additional Visitors tell their tales, and there's no other audience besides Jimmy.  As such, there reason why the Scarecrow can't have regaled other children with his history later on. August 29.

a. After this is likely where the following Queer Visitors episode takes place:  "How the Strangers Found Themselves Between the Auto and the Deep Sea," which may have occurred off the East Coast of New York. August 29.

3. "How Patty Ate the Pills": Now in Virginia, Jack Pumpkinhead offers Patricia Partridge pills that will make her grow.  The Tin Woodman comes to her rescue and she shrinks back down.  This is essentially a reworking of what the Wogglebug does in "Eliza and the Lozenges," but with different Visitors in the story, allowing the latter tale to still occur later on in their visit.  It's ironic that when Patty asks Jack if he's from Mars, he doesn't know what Mars is, even though he'd been there a few days ago.  August 30

a. After this is likely where the following Queer Visitors episode take place: "How the Adventurers Lost and Found Themselves" and "How the Tin Woodman Escaped the Magic Flood," which is at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in Missouri.  August 31 and September 1.

4. "How the Pumpkinhead Swapped the Sawhorse": This is a direct adaptation of "Jack Pumpkinhead Pawns the Sawhorse," with some differences: This version leaves out the pawnshop and Jack's need for money.  Also, Jack figures out his mistake on his own.  In the earlier version, the Wogglebug points it out to him. The discrepancies are not enough that the two should be viewed as different events, and the contradictions should be ignored in favor of seeing the two as presenting additional details of the one event.  This version also makes it clear that they're in Texas, and the only reason they're here is because they thought it might be Kansas. September 2.


5. "How the Tin Woodman Granted Timothy's Wish": An adaptation of "The Scarecrow Presents a Magic Automobile to a Little Girl," with two differences, the principle characters.  In the original, it's the Scarecrow granting a little girl a car.  In this, it's the Scarecrow granting it to a boy.  Also in this version, the Wogglebug is the rescuer.  The differences are significant enough that both incidents can be said to have happened at different times.  This probably takes place on their way north from Texas to the Rocky Mountains, and because its green, it might still be Texas or even Oklahoma.  September 3.


6. "How Our Friends Barely Escaped the Bears: As with the first chapter, this is an entirely new episode that has no equivalent with any Baum story. The Visitors went too far west into the Colorado Rocky Mountains. September 4.

a. After this is likely where the following Queer Visitors episode take place: "The Scarecrow Becomes a Man of Means in Spite of the Girls at a Church Fair," which occurs while they're in the mountains.  As their experiences in the jackdaws' nest is nearly the same as the one they had in The Marvelous Land of Oz, this is likely an apocryphal tale.  There's also no explanation as to where the three thousand dollars go, or why the Visitors later have no money.  Knowing how poor Dorothy and her family were, one would think that they'd give it to her.

7. "How the Tin Woodman Developed a Magnetic Personality": The visitors finally find Kansas.  Two of Baum's strips are covered here, "Uncle Eli Laughed Too Soon" and "A Magnetic Personality," both of which begin in Pogosh County, Kansas.  There is no "Pogosh County" today, but it can arguably have been a small town at the turn of the century that no longer exists. Uncle Eli gets an expanded role when he attempts to shoot the Tin Woodman (who is saved by his magnetism).  Following this, there's room for the events of the original strip to occur later on as the Tin Woodman walks into the main part of town.  September 5.


8. "How the Oz Visitors Discovered Dorothy at Last": A straightforward adaptation of "How the Saw-horse Saved Dorothy's Life."  Wisely, the Wogglebug uses a wishing pill to get the Visitors directly to Dorothy's farm, and just in time to save her from the rampaging bull.  This essentially wipes out the introductory scene from the Queer Visitors strip, with Toto attacking the Wogglebug in "How the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman Met Some Old Friends."  This is fine ommission as the original version included some scenes that are difficult to reconcile, namely that Toto and Dorothy already know who the Wogglebug, Jack Pumpkinhead, the Gump and Sawhorse are.  Additionally, the original had them running into Dorothy purely by accident, since the only reason they landed was to see what a farm was like.  The new version has them, more appropriately, looking for Dorothy.  September 6.


9. "How the Wogglebug Worked His Wonders": Dorothy's birthday party takes place in this version, establishing a possible date on September 7.  The discussion of beauty is a reference to their visit to the cosmetologist in "How the Ozites Met a Beauty Doctor" (which can occur here), while  the magic performance section adapts "Dorothy Spends an Evening With Her Old Friends and is Entertained With Wonderful Exhibitions."  In this version, Dorothy has her friends with her, and appears to be in her house.  In the original, she's come to stay with the Visitors in the rooms put up for them by the mayor.  The latter seems implausible (unless the Gump has gone to pick her up). But a problem that's introduced in this version is the presence of Aunt Em and Uncle Henry, who shouldn't know that Oz is real until they go there in The Emerald City of Oz (though they likely suspected Dorothy was telling the truth at least from the time of Eureka in Oz).  To salvage this scenario, The Royal Timeline of Oz excises page 82.  September 7.  It seems that Aunt Em and Uncle Henry must be away, likely in Topeka, perhaps dealing with house issues (mortgage, obtaining supplies, etc.)

a. There is a four-month gap before the Visitors depart back to Oz.  This is is likely where the following take place: "Jack Pumpkinhead and the Sawhorse Win a Race and Incite a Riot; the Wogglebug Restores Harmony," which features Dorothy and would take place the next day on September 8th; "How the Adventurers Encountered an Unknown Beast," which is in Arizona. After that, it's impossible to tell where they head. "How the Wogglebug Proved his Knowledge of Chemistry," "The Scarecrow Tells a Fairy Tale to Children and Hears an Equally Marvelous True Story," "How the Wogglebug Found a Lost Child and Gave a Lesson in Heraldry," "The Scarecrow Presents a Magic Automobile to a Little Girl," "How the Tin Woodman Became a Fire Hero," "The Two Wishes," "Tim Nichols and the Cat," "Mr. Wimble's Wooden Leg," "Nan's Magic Button," "Eliza and the Lozenges," and "The Woggle-Bug Encourages Charity" might take place literally anywhere in the U.S.


b. If one accepts The Untold Adventures of the Visitors from Oz, the story "How the Visitors Saved the School" goes here.  It takes about three weeks to a month, and takes place in New York City.


c. The Wogglebug gets lost at this juncture, leading to the events of "The Unique Adventures of the Wogglebug."  It takes place over the course of six days.  After this, he's back with his friends.

10. "How the Gump Raced Santa's Reindeer": A direct adaptation of "How the Wogglebug and his Friends Visited Santa Claus," which marks Baum's first crossover (the Oz series and The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus), something he'll continue and expand on in The Road to Oz.  This takes place in December, over four months after the prior story ("How the Wogglebug Worked His Wonders") to allow for the remainder of the Queer Visitors strips to occur (which are listed above).  It notes that they'd made several interesting trips in the interval, but that it was time to get back to Oz for a "magnificent celebration in Ozma's palace." The dating of their trip to the Laughing Valley is in error, as the Tin Woodman claims it's Christmas Eve.  Yet, the equivalent Queen Visitors strip in is dated December 18, and the Visitors say "it's nearly Christmastime."  The error is understandable given that Santa is literally in his sleigh flying off to deliver presents to children.  Why then would he be two weeks early?  One Ryl says that because there are so many more children, Santa has to get an early start.  The story also notes that the Laughing Valley has snow from the North Pole, so perhaps there's a second toy-factory there, and that's where he's headed.


In-Universe Explanation

The plausibility of these stories may seem strained since some from the Outside World don't seem terribly shocked or upset by the appearance of a walking, talking scarecrow, metal-man, pumpkinhead, gump, sawhorse and human-sized insect dressed as a dandy.  However, two factors can play into the reality of this scenario if one wishes to see how these stories can reasonably have occurred:


1. Baum's musical extravaganza The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was then a huge hit in the States, and was even known abroad.  In the Ozmapolitan, Dorothy even says she wishes to go see it with her Ozian friends when they arrive.

2. The newspapers "announced" the arrival of these characters from several weeks prior to their landing in the U.S.


With these two factors in the media, ordinary citizens of the U.S. likely thought that these personages were part of an elaborate publicity stunt designed to advertise the running musical and upcoming Baum book (unaware that the latter was based on actual events).  Those who came across the Ozian visitors who don't know about these events were clearly frightened.  Children and some adults clearly believed they were fairies (which may not have been uncommon given their publicity by Arthur Conan Doyle and others).  One woman thinks the Wogglebug is the Devil.  Most, however, likely marveled at how amazing and lifelike the costumes were, or, conversely, were indifferent (or even hostile) to what they deemed the marketing ploys of early twentieth century city-folk. 


Ozma appears to be sending them merely for vacation, without any attempt to secure diplomatic ties with the Outside World, although the Visitors do end having a room given them by the mayor of some city, so perhaps that was a factor that didn't go anywhere.  More likely, she was curious about the place where Dorothy and the Wizard came from.  Ozma and Glinda do something unusual.  Not only do they give them magic so that they're able to stay alive in the Outside World, but they allow them to have magical powers to use while they're there to benefit who they come across.  Several of these attempts fail, but there is still very little that's revealed during this four month long excursion.  One thing that's notable (in "How the Adventurers Returned Home" is their disdain of money.  At this point, Ozma has stopped the use of money in the Emerald City and surrounding areas, but their testimony convinces her to ban money altogether.  Of course, old habits die hard, even in Oz, but for the most part she succeeds.


For further chronological details, see the appendices.

Publication History


Over the years, The Baum Bugle reprinted much of Walt McDougall's work, but in a far smaller size that rendered the text difficult to read.  For the first time since they debuted in The Philadelphia Syndicate (from August 28th, 1904 to February 26th 1905), Baum's Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz newspaper strip was reprinted in its original size, format, and with McDougall's original artwork in the 2009 oversized volume from Sunday Press.  Along with Baum's strips, this also includes Denslow's competing Oz strips from 1904, Scarecrow and Tinman.



The Third Book of Oz: In 1986 and 1989, the Queer Visitors strips were revisited by Eric Shanower, Hugh Pendexter III and Martin Williams. Published as The Third Book of Oz by Armstrong Press (and three years later by Buckethead Enterprises of Oz), this publication featured illustrations by Eric Shanower, replacing both Dick Martin's illustrations and Walt McDougall's, which proved impractical to reproduce in a smaller size. The Third Book of Oz, so named for its chronological place in canon, changed Baum's text to remove the racial slurs extant in the original publication.  This edition was also the first to incorporate the follow-up story from The Woggle-Bug Book entitled The Unique Adventures of the Woggle-bug, albeit heavily edited to remove the racial slurs as well as to incorporate answers to the ubiquitous contest question, "What did the Woggle-bug say?"



The Visitors from Oz: This 2005 volume from Hungry Tiger Press included for the first time in a 100 years the twenty-six complete and unedited American newspaper strip stories written by L. Frank Baum. This edition restored the original text, but had to eliminate McDougall's artwork for practical purposes, and instead included Shanower's illustrations (from both editions of The Third Book of Oz), as well Baum's follow-up story from The Woggle-Bug Book called, The Unique Adventures of the Wogglebug



Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz: The original strips were reproduced with their original text and their original artwork by Walt McDougall in their original size by Sunday Press in 2009. This is the definitive edition of these strips, and include W.W. Denslow's competing strip Scarecrow and Tin-Man in its original format, as well as several ancillary strips from McDougall and Denslow, an unpublished Oz strip from 1925 called "Adventures in Oz," a "Nip & Tuck" adventure from John R. Neill and "Billy Bounce" from W.W. Denslow.






The Unique Adventures of the Woggle-bug

Woggle-Bug Book


History: Book #46 of the Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!  The Wogglebug Book, Baum's fourth Oz story, is a continuation of the Queer Visitors newspaper strip stories, focusing on the Wogglebug and his madcap attempts to acquire a certain fabric he'd become enamored with.  This was geared more for adult audiences, as Baum indulged in the racial humor deemed amusing in that day, rendering this one of the rare offensive books he wrote.  Re-edited versions of this story found in The Third Book of Oz and The Visitors from Oz remove the offensive stereotypes and make it possible for readers of all ages and sensitivities to enjoy it.  These latter two were re-illustrated by Eric Shanower for Armstrong Press and Buckethead Enterprises of Oz (and later Hungry Tiger Press). A reprint of the original Wogglebug Book is available on


Continuity notes:

Dating: This story takes place after the end of the Queer Visitors from the Marvelous Land of Oz newspaper strips at the end of 1904.  Regarding the adventurers’ uncharacteristic use of magic, and the Wogglebug’s four arms, retcons are required. It's clear from the text that Ozma and Glinda equipped the adventurers with special abilities for use on their travels throughout America.  Considering the events of Beach Blanket BabylOz (wherein Scarecrow becomes lifeless upon entering the mortal worlds), some kind of magical protection also seems required.  As regards the Wogglebug's extra arms, no tale has yet been told to explain, although "The Wogglebug's New Clothes" indicates that the titular being started off with six limbs (four arms and two legs), which is how Baum describes him in the newspaper strip and book.  Perhaps he had each pair conjoined to appear more human.  Similarly, he must keep his wings under his clothes. 











How the Adventurers Returned Home


Story and continuity notes: The visitors tell Ozma of their trip, and explain how the use of money in the U.S. has caused so many difficulties.


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