Ozzy Footnotes 4







The Corn Mansion of Oz


Story: When the Scarecrow grows homesick, he sets off for Glinda's, wondering if he's been enchanted.  On the way, he discovers he actually desires his own home in the country, and endeavors to have his corncob mansion built on a design created by Jack Pumpkinhead.


Continuity notes:

Corncob Mansion: In Lucky Bucky in Oz, the Scarecrow gives the Tin Woodman the credit for actually building the castle.  In this narrative, it is Timorous (who also built the Tin Woodman's castle) who physically built it, with the help of Tin Woodman from the design stage to the actual construction, which may explain why the Scarecrow credits him. 


Dating: The main body of the text is set over the course of the summer, ending just prior to the start of The Emerald City of Oz.  The frame story takes place a year later.


Floors: Jack's design of the mansion [110] implies that only six floors were built, though in Lucky Bucky in Oz it is either 12 or 20.  Additionally, in The Emerald City of Oz, only five floors are indicated (chapter 24).  This may not be contradiction, however, as Jack's interior plans were upgraded [131], and the listing of the floors [134/5] doesn't discount the possibility that additional floors were later added.


Sequel: This book serves as a sequel of sorts to the author's earlier The Tin Castle of Oz, explaining how the Tin Woodman got his home.  This book also contains the short story: A Pumpkin Patch in Oz, which shows how Jack got his home as well.









The Emerald City of Oz


The sixth book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Story: Angry at the loss of his Magic Belt and humiliation he suffered, the Nome King approaches General Blug and Colonel Crinkle to obtain their advice in attacking Oz.  When they refuse, he has them (apparently) killed, and enlists a new general, Guph, to help with revenging himself on Oz.  Guph makes a dangerous journey to three lands run by evil spirits, the Whimsies, Growleywogs and Phanfasms, recruiting each in turn to help them in their invasion, which will proceed through an underground tunnel beneath the Deadly Desert, and emerging in the Emerald City.


Uncle Henry and Aunt Em are, meanwhile, unable to pay their mortgage, and near to losing the house when Dorothy asks Ozma to take them in.  Happy to do so, Ozma brings them to the Emerald City to live.  Feeling astounded and out of place, Ozma sends them a tour of Oz with Dorothy, Toto, Billina, the Sawhorse, Shaggy, Ombi Amby and the Wizard.  Together, they visit the Wogglebug's Athletic College, Miss Cuttenclip, who has a village of living paper dolls, and Fuddlecumjig, where the residents scatter into jigsaw puzzle pieces that have to be put back together.


Dorothy, Billina and Toto get separated from the group and discover three additional communities: Utensia, where the inhabitants are living kitchen utensils and plates, Bunbury, where the inhabitants are living baked goods (and where Toto and Billina ends up eating a resident), and Bunnybury, a village of sapient rabbits whose king longs for the old days of freedom, but later comes to appreciate what he has.


Dorothy and her companions rejoin the larger group and proceed to Rigmarole, where the residents speak much but say little, and Flutterbudget, where the residents live in constant fear of things that will likely never come to pass.  These two communities are said to be Defense settlements, and those who suffer from their conditions are exiled there.  After this, they travel to the Tin Woodman's Tin Castle, where they discover the Nome King's plot to destroy Oz.


Meanwhile, as the plot to invade Oz begins at midnight and will be a journey of six hours to arrive at the Emerald City by daybreak, each of the three evil races plots to betray and destroy the other.  Ozma sees what is going on in the Magic Picture, but refuses to be concerned.  Everyone else is quite concerned, however, and Ozma—refusing to flee her city—seeks a nonviolent solution, which the Scarecrow comes up with. 


Filling the tunnel with dust, the invaders burst upon the Emerald City and rush off to drink water from the Forbidden Fountain.  As the Fountain contains the Waters of Oblivion, which cause those who drink it to forget their past, the enemies are rendered harmless and are sent home by means of the Magic Belt.


Continuity notes:

Animal-Rights: Baum indicates for the second time since The Road to Oz that animals in Oz are on equal footing with humans. Dorothy informs her aunt that no one eats chickens in Oz (p. 149), and the Tin Woodman confirms that "every created thing is safe from harm in my domain, and I would as soon thinking of killing my little friend Dorothy as killing one of my tin fishes."  The Tin Woodman even discusses showing consideration to flies, a conversation (p. 250) that demonstrates that there are some sapient insects in Oz, such as flies and large mosquitoes that sing but never bite or annoy people (some of these appear in The Tin Castle of Oz).


Book Structure: This is Baum's first Oz book with a multiple ongoing storyline (Queen Zixi of Ix employed this as well), that of Dorothy and company touring Oz, and that of the Nome King and General Guph gathering enemies for war against Oz.  The former is a travelogue with pastoral, humorous and satiric elements, whereas the latter is a travelogue that comes the closest Baum ever got to the horror genre.  Aside from the latter element (which Jack Snow will expand on), the structure is a model that Thompson will utilize for several of her books.


Bunbury: Both Toto and Dorothy demonstrate their immaturity here (as Dorothy did in a different way in The Road to Oz), the former when he eats a few sapient citizens of Bunbury, and the latter when she defends and justifies his actions.  The latter can be seen as defensiveness on her part when accused, but it makes her a hypocrite, as she'd earlier reprimanded Toto for wanting to eat Billina.  Bunbury may be the creation of a fairy or witch known as the Queen of the Flour Folk, who rules in Cookry Land.  See "The Little Gingerbread Man."

Bunnybury: Bunnybury was created by Glinda, potentially to protect albino rabbits from being predated on, as their color gives them a disadvantage in the wild, though when this occurred is not stated.  It may have been before Lurline's 1743 enchantment.


Dating: The Emerald City of Oz takes place over the course of 15 days (see the Day-to-Day Chronology for details), likely in early September.


Evil Spirits: The Whimsies, Growleywogs, and Phanfasms are each characterized as evil spirits, the latter as Erbs, the "most powerful and merciless of all the evil spirits."  Of the latter, "No one had been near their mountain home for several thousand years."  The Phanfasms return again in several stories, including Fiona Freckles, the First and Foremost, The Law of Oz and Other Stories and The Living House of Oz.


Invisible Barrier: On page 290, there is a discussion about potential future "wicked enemies" coming to Oz, and a concern that airships from the Outside World will discover Oz, and potentially invade it.  While this might seem like a Flutterbudget fear, it leads Glinda to render Oz invisible to anyone outside Oz, effectively (if temporarily) cutting Oz off from the rest of the world and the Nonestican continent.  It purportedly cut off Baum from serving as Royal Historian, but this was a problem that was later solved by use of the wireless.  In time, just prior to Rinkitink in Oz, the invisible barrier is dropped.  As noted in The Gardener's Boy of Oz, "since many of the immigrants from the outside world... had proven themselves good and valuable residents, while several of Ozma's most dangerous enemies... had been native Ozites, the little ruler had decided it was more trouble than it was worth to keep up the shield of invisibility, and had graciously permitted the history of her country to be shared with readers in the outside world."  By the time of The Shaggy Man of Oz (see the notes for this entry for further details), however, the barrier is restored, likely in the wake of the events of The Magical Mimics of Oz.


The Magic Picture: As is true in Tik-Tok of Oz (written around the same time), the Magic Picture is revealed to have the capability of both picture and sound, as Ozma and her companions are able to listen to the Nome King make plans with the leader of the Phanfasms, Whimsies and Growleywogs.  Merry Go Round in Oz, however, indicates that the Wizard's magic radio is needed to hear sound.  It seems like that this is kept as an external device so that Ozma is not either perceived as, or guilty of spying on her friends and citizens.


Miss Cuttenclip: As revealed in The Magic Bowls of Oz, Miss Cuttenclip is not the only one to have gotten magic paper from Glinda.  Her cousin, Aura Gammi, who once lived nearby (but now lives in the Red Jinn's palace in Ev) also gets magic paper from her.  Aurra made Areo, the paper airplane, who Jinnicky enlarged.


The Nome Kingdom: The Nome King has 50,000 soldiers under him.  Guph becomes his new general, but his indication that Glinda lives north of the Emerald City has to be seen as a mistake on his part.  Guph appears again in The Hungry Tiger of Oz.


Pacifism: Oz has at this point become decidedly non-violent.  Upon facing imminent destruction and/or enslavement by the Nomes, Growleywogs, Whimsies and Phanfasms, Ozma declares her new stance: "No one has the right to destroy any living creatures, however evil they may be, or to hurt them or make them unhappy.  I will not fight−even to save my kingdom," and then, demonstrating that this stance is not cowardice (as she refuses to take Dorothy's offer of going to Kansas), she says "I would like to discover a plan to save ourselves without fighting."  This development is new and demonstrates an evolution of Ozma's conception as to how Oz should be governed.  It also informs her character for most of the rest of the series. Her stance on nonviolence is enlarged upon in the book Adolf Hitler in Oz.


Oz as Eutopia: Following on The Road to Oz, The Emerald City of Oz solidifies Baum's conception of his famous fairyland as an egalitarian realm under Ozma's policy of nonviolence.  Economically and socially, there is no poor, and no money.  "Each person was given freely by his neighbors whatever he required for his use... Each man and woman, no matter what he or she produced for the good of the community, was supplied by the neighbors with food and clothing and a house and furniture and ornaments and games.  If by chance the supply ever ran short, more was taken from the great storehouses of the Ruler...  Each one worked half the time and played half the time, and the people enjoyed the work as much as they did the play...  There were no cruel overseers set to watch them, and no one to rebuke them or to find fault with them."  There are farmers, tailors, dressmakers, shoemakers, jewelers and others who provide their goods to anyone who asks for them.  "Each was proud to do all he could for his friends and neighbors."  Socially, the people were variegated: "There were all sorts of queer characters among them, but not a single one who was evil, or who possessed a selfish or violent nature.  They were peaceful, kind-hearted, loving and merry," and all loved Ozma.  Even the animals are "for the most part harmless and even sociable." The Kalidahs who "had once been fierce and bloodthirsty," were "now nearly all tamed."


Oz Population: On page 29/30, Baum indicates that there are over half a million residents of Oz, 9,654 buildings and 57,318 residents in the Emerald City.  Billina indicates that she has 86 sons and daughters (Daniels and Dorothys) and 300 grandchildren, and their numbers increase every day.  While they are "never eaten or harmed in any way," Billina donates all the unfertilized eggs to the Emerald City. In The Royal Explorers of Oz, it is explained that to prevent population control Billina had all of her eggs (and offsprings' eggs) magically sterilized.  Given that she has 7,000 offspring by the time of The Patchwork Girl of Oz, this would mean a lot of chickens went off into neighboring fairylands.


The Sawhorse was fitted with new sawdust brains by the Wizard, and is noted to have his feet shod with gold.


School: It is noteworthy that the students at Professor Wogglebug's college are made to learn Greek, Latin and "The Charge of the Light Brigade," an 1854 poem by Lord Tennyson about an English brigade during the Crimean War.  These were common subjects in secondary school and college at the time, as English has their roots in them.  Due to the fact that the Wogglebug has his students take the Wizard's Learning Pills to digest such subjects, Baum may have been engaging in satire, as he does with most of the places Dorothy and company visit.  As regards those very pills, J.L. Bell notes, the "EMERALD CITY actually credits [the Wizard] with inventing Prof Wogglebug's pills (GLINDA credits the bug)."  This would seem to indicate that both were involved in their invention.  Perhaps the concept was the Wogglebug's and the execution the Wizard's.


Underground tunnel: Ozma closes up the tunnel, but as is discovered in later stories, such as The Shaggy Man of Oz, it is only the end of the tunnel under the Emerald City grounds that has been closed up as several characters are later able to go underground through the tunnel.  This is explained in The Red Jinn in Oz when the Lion says to Dorothy that he believed Ozma had closed up the entire tunnel (as she said she was going to do), but Dorothy clarifies and tells him that Ozma only plugged up the end of the tunnel. This is likely because of what the Glow Worm Glim said: "Many of these [creatures] made their homes in the tunnel; and when I came, it was already crowded.  Since then the tunnel has been greatly enlarged, and the side passages made for the benefit of those who wish to spend some of their time on the Earth's surface."  Not wanting to disturb these creatures or the new homes they built in and around the tunnel, Ozma likely decided to leave it be, but close up the side on her end. As regards security risks, the tunnel is surrounded by a maze of passageways underground, making it hard to stay on the original tunnel.







Aunt Em and Uncle Henry

Story: Revised version coming soon. During their arrival in Oz, Aunt Em and Uncle Henry recount their courtship and the circumstances which brought Dorothy to live with them. 


Continuity Notes: Coming soon






Little Wizard Stories of Oz


Oz Book #47 of the Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!  This ninth Oz title from Baum is a compilation of six short stories originally published in mini-book editions in 1913 before finally being compiled as Little Wizard Stories of Oz


The Cowardly Lion and the Hungry Tiger of Oz

Story: Bored of their duties in the Emerald City, the Hungry Tiger and Cowardly Lion each propose to eat a fat baby and tear apart someone, and so improve their reputations and respect by appearing fierce.  When the Hungry Tiger comes across a lost child, however, he comforts it; and when the Lion comes across the child's mother, he brings her to the child, and so both prove they're neither cruel nor fierce.  "It's better to be a coward than to do wrong," says the Lion.  "It's better to be hungry than to be cruel to a child," agrees the Tiger.


Continuity notes: Temptation will come to challenge the Lion and Tiger's commitment to non-cruelty again in their respective books, The Cowardly Lion of Oz and The Hungry Tiger of Oz.


Little Dorothy and Toto in Oz

Story: Paying no heed to the Wizard's warnings about traveling unescorted through Oz, Dorothy and Toto travel into the Quadling country, and are there kidnapped by the giant Crinklink who forces Dorothy to wash all his dishes, threatening that for every dish she breaks, he will lash her with a whip.  When he goes to sleep, Toto attacks him, only to discover that Crinklink is really the Wizard in disguise.  The Wizard says he was teaching Dorothy a lesson.


Continuity notes: Dorothy seems to have embraced Ozma's pacifism, and when given the option to kill Crinklink says, "I couldn't poss'bly kill anythingeven to save my life." 


This is a revised version of Baum's original story, as requested by his editor Sumner Britton.  In the original, Crinklink is an actual sorcerer. When he's shrunk down, Toto eats him!  (For more details, see Martin Gardener's introduction to the Shocken edition of Little Wizard Stories of Oz.)


Tik-Tok and the Nome King of Oz

Story: The Wizard sends Tik-Tok to the Nome King to attain new parts.  Once there, however, the Nome King gets mad and throws his mace at the Clockwork Man, breaking him into pieces.  Frightened by what he'd done, the Nome King orders Kaliko to throw Tik-Tok into the Black Pit, and hides in his room for two weeks.  During that time, Kaliko fixes Tik-Tok, but when the newly repaired Clockwork Man appears before the Nome King, he runs away in terror, fearing that a ghost has come to torment him.


Continuity notes: Story demonstrates that there's peace between the Nome King's underground kingdom and Oz.  This period of peace is also demonstrated in the Oziana 1991 story "Mission Impozible: Revenge of the Emerald Grasshopper." Baum also correctly situates the Nome King's domain west of Oz.  The Nomes also use a form of currency called a "specto."


Ozma and the Little Wizard of Oz

Story: As Ozma and the Wizard journey to visit "all parts of the country," they encounter three mischievous imps, Olite, Udent and Ertinent.  When one of them pushes Ozma and the Wizard to the ground and kicks dust on them, the Wizard transforms them into bushes.  But with magic of their own, the bushes move to prick them with their thorns, after which the Wizard transforms them into pigs.  Yet, the pigs run them over, pushing the Wizard into a river. He then transforms them into doves, which fly at them, trying to peck their eyes out and biting Ozma's ear.  Finally, the Wizard transforms them into buttons of tin, brass and lead, which the Wizard plans to sew unto his coat until they repent, which will be evidenced by a change of tin to silver, brass to gold and lead to aluminum.



Dating: No internal dates are provided. The journey Ozma and the Wizard are on represents a lengthy journey that could reasonably take months.  What other adventures they encountered during this time are as yet unrecorded, but unless they called it short, which they might have given the circumstances, there may have been many.  The Royal Timeline of Oz places this in 1906.


Sequel: The Imps repent years later and return in The Three Imps of Oz, which connects their race to the Ruby Imp, from (Rosine and) The Laughing Dragon of Oz.


Jack Pumpkinhead and the Sawhorse of Oz

Story: When Ozma spies in the Magic Picture a lost boy and girl, she sends Jack Pumpkinhead upon the Sawhorse to rescue the children.  But the Squirrel King is unwilling to release them, believing they stole the nuts they'd saved up for winter.  Jack believes the kids, who says he only ate them to keep from going hungry, and unties them.  But a falling limb from a tree smashes his pumpkin head, rendering him unable to see or speak.  The Sawhorse has the children gather Jack's body, after which he rides them away, but he soon gets lost.  Ozma then sends the Wizard and Cowardly Lion to find them.  Together they restore the children to their home, and head back to Jack's house, where the Wizard picks and carves a new pumpkin head for Jack.


Continuity notes: Why Ozma doesn't use the Magic Belt to simply restore the children, or Jack, is a puzzle, but as indicated in "Ruggedo and the School of Magic," the Belt has limitations and idiosyncrasies that are still being worked out by the time of The Magic of Oz.  The Squirrel King returns to cause more trouble in The Lavender Bear of Oz.


The Scarecrow and the Tin Woodman of Oz

Story: The Scarecrow and Tin Woodman decide to take a boat ride on the river.  When the boat hits a rock, the Tin Woodman falls and sinks to the bottom of the river.  When the Scarecrow attempts to dive in to rescue him, he manages to get his face wet and accidentally wipes away one of his painted eyes.  King Crow laughs at the Scarecrow, but agrees to help get him out if the Scarecrow can tie a line to him.  The Tin Woodman ties a fishing line to himself, and the birds seize the cord and drag him and the Scarecrow (tied to the line) out and into the air, leaving the friends suspended in a tree.  Finally, the Wizard and Sawhorse come along, and rescue the friends, restoring them to their boat.


Continuity notes: This is an entirely revised story which was requested by the editor Sumner Britton.  The original is unfortunately lost.  The idea of the Scarecrow and Tin Woodman enjoying boat rides carries through their lives, and features in the book, The Ozmapolitan of Oz.










The Patchwork Girl of Oz


The seventh book the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


Story: Ojo the Unlucky and his Unc Nunkie set off from their secluded blue Forest in the Munchkin country, first stopping to visit Dr. Pipt and his wife Dame Margolette.  The former is stirring a new batch of the Powder of Life, which his wife wants to use to bring to life a servant that she's constructed.  They meet the Glass Cat, who they'd made with their first batch years ago, though neither Pipt nor his wife care for her.


While Margolette is not looking, Ojo feels bad for the lifeless dummy, and mixes in extra brain potions.  When Pipt brings the Patchwork Girl to life, she accidentally knocks over a bottle of petrifaction, turning Margolette and Unc Nunkie to marble statues.  Horrified, Ojo agrees to find the magical ingredients to restore them.  These include:


A six-leaf clover

The left wing of a butterfly

A gill of water from a dark well

3 hairs from the top of a Woozy's tail

A drop of oil from a man's body


The Powder of Life has also brought to life Dr. Pipt's phonograph player.  The Patchwork Girl, who the Glass Cat names Scraps, and the Glass Cat, who Dr. Pipt named Bungle, have never had any adventures, and head off with Ojo to assist him.  They first meet an old friend of Nick Chopper (back when he was a meat person).  Then Ojo sleeps and eats in a strange house which has no occupant but an invisible Voice.  At night, Scraps sees a wolf come to the door three times.  In the morning, Ojo still feels hungry and tired.  After departing, the phonograph player, Victor Columbia Edison, or Vic, catches up with the group, but they despise his music, whether classical or rag-time, and rudely disparage him so that he goes off by himself, aggrieved.


Next, they head to the home of the Wise Donkey from Mo (from The Magical Monarch of Mo) and the Foolish Owl, and get directions.  They hop over a fence and discover the Woozy, who had been shut up by farmers years ago because he ate their honeybees.  The farmers had attempted to destroy him first, but failed.  After Ojo feeds him from his sack, the grateful Woozy agrees to give Ojo the three hairs on his tail, but no one can pull them out.  So together they depart with the Woozy, who burns a hole in the fence with fire that he produces from his eyes when he gets angry.  To get him angry, the Woozy instructs them to use the word Krizzle Kroo, which angers him because he doesn't understand it.


The travelers fall prey to the Man-Eating-Plants on the Yellow Brick Road, but the Shaggy Man happens along, whistling (which keeps the plants from eating him), and chopping off the buds that hold them prisoner.  He explains that he's been away from the Emerald City for several weeks, and will escort them to the Emerald City.  He offers square-meal tablets, which the Wogglebug invented.


The travelers run into Vic the Phonograph Player again, but again he's disparaged, this time by the Shaggy Man who threatens to destroy him.  They next encounter a porcupine in the road named Chiss, who shoots his quills at anyone who passes by, and who is considered an evil spirit by the locals.  Chiss shoots at the travelers, and hits Shaggy's leg, but they collect and keep his quills from him.  They next come to a locked gate, but Shaggy says it's an optical illusion, and they walk backwards through it with their eyes closed.


The Scarecrow and Sawhorse show up, and while the Scarecrow is entranced by Scraps (and vice versa), the Sawhorse is rude towards the Woozy.  They meet the Soldier with the Green Whiskers, who arrests Ojo because the boy had unlawfully picked a six-leafed clover when he thought no one was looking.  He is brought to Tollydiggle the jailor, who has a beautiful cottage and treats him with kindness and good food, explaining that the goal in Oz is to make prisoners who are weak and cowardly for having broken the law, strong and brave.  Ojo is Tollydiggle's first prisoner, and her home is the only (official) prison in Oz.


Ojo goes before Ozma and her court to plead his case, and Ozma forgives him, explaining why she banned the picking of six-leafed clovers (it's a common recipe in magical formulae).  The travelers, Dorothy and Toto head to Jack Pumpkinhead's home before passing to the Quadling Country.  After some time, they must pass by the dangerous giant Mr. Yoop, who tries to eat them.  Then they encounter the cave of the Hoppers, who have one large leg which they use to hop about, and the Horners, who have a horn jutting from their foreheads.  The two peoples share the cave, divided by a fence, and are at war because of an insult made by the Horners.  After Scraps goes over the fence to mediate the conflict, she discovers from the Chief Horner, Jak, that it was only a joke made by Diksey Horner.  He explains this to the Hoppers, and there is peace again.  The travelers discover a dark well in the Horner territory, and Ojo gets the next ingredient. 


On the way, the travelers encounter a rapidly moving river, and entice a Quadling farmer (with some square-meal tablets) to build them a raft.  This angers his wife, but Dorothy tells her Ozma will compensate her.  On the river, however, they discover it changes currents, but they soon find a way to overcome the trick river.


At the Tin Woodman's castle in the Winkie Country, Ojo presents his request for the last ingredient, but the Tin Woodman steadfastly refuses to allow Ojo to harm a butterfly, even to save his uncle. He advises that he instead ask the help of Ozma.  Back at the Emerald City, Ozma agrees with the Tin Woodman's objection, and has the Wizard use his magic to undo the enchantment on Margolette and Unc Nunkie.  The Wizard also takes away Dr. Pipt's magic and ability to make the Powder of Life. He also straightens his crooked limbs.  Because of her vanity, the Wizard also lobotomizes the Glass Cat and gives her clear brains instead.  Finally, Ozma gives Ojo and Unc Nunkie a house just outside the Emerald City.



Billina: Billina now has 7,000 chicks.  See the notes for The Emerald City of Oz for details about Billina's brood.


Colors in Oz: Baum clarifies the issue with colors of each quadrant: p. 304: "Not that the trees and grasses were red, but the fences and houses were painted that color and all the wild-flowers that bloomed by the wayside had red blossoms."


Crossovers: The Wise Donkey first appeared in the Magical Monarch of Mo, when he lived in Mo.  No indication of whether the Foolish Owl is a companion from there, or someone he met in Oz.


Dating: The Patchwork Girl of Oz takes place over the course of 12 days (see the Day-to-Day Chronology for details), likely in early September.


Glass Cat: Bungle's lobotomy didn't stick, as she's described in later books as having her pink brains back.  This story was revealed over the course of time.  "Voyaging Through Strange Seas of Thought, Alone" (Oziana 2011) depicts the mental state of Bungle following her lobotomy. She then has her original brains replaced in "Toto and the Truth" (Oz-Story #6), yet because her pompous nature returns along with them, the Wizard again turns them clear, but this time magically.  In "A Bungled Kidnapping in Oz" (Oziana 2004), Bungle saves the day and requests that her brains be turned back to their original color, which they are. 


Another interesting fact about Bungle is that, of all the magically constructed creatures, she sleeps, as Ojo discovers one night.  She's said to sleep again in The Magic of Oz and The Witch Queen of Oz.  Two other magically constructed beings sleep as well, the Wooden Gargoyles of Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, and Davy Jones of Lucky Bucky in Oz.


Mr. Yoop: The giant wife of Mrs. Yoop (The Tin Woodman of Oz), his origins are revealed in The Law of Oz and Other Stories.


Mysterious House: Besides a blue light that possibly leads them to the house, and the disembodied dictatorial Voice which tersely feeds and provides Ojo and Bungle shelter, Scraps notes that a large grey wolf came to the door of the house three times in the night. Also, Ojo finds the he's both still hungry and tired.  The wolf at the door is an old expression which indicates the coming of poverty and privation.


Ojo: Ruth Plumly Thompson indicates that Ojo is ten years old in Ojo in Oz (set in 1930).  How old he is at this point is difficult to ascertain.  His birth is noted by Unc Nunkie as being shortly after Ree Ala Bad is exiled, which is some time after Ozma comes to the throne.  This chronology doesn't work, however, because this story (Ojo's first appearance in which he's a boy, and not an infant) cannot take place any later than 1905 due to the fact that it precedes Rinkitink in Oz, which was originally written in 1905.  This means that Ojo had to have been born prior to Ozma's ascension to the throne.  But if that is the case, why does Unc Nunkie not say so?  One theory holds that he is keeping the truth from Ree Ala Bad for the sake of Isomere, a possibility that has several interesting implications that have not yet been explored in story.  For Ree Ala Bad to not known of his wife's pregnancy implies that he was away for an extended period of time.


Pipt and the Powder of Life: Dr. Ozwald Pipthis first name is  revealed in Father Goose in Oznotes that this last batch took "nearly six years" to make.  He traded the last batch with Mombi who gave him a fake Powder of Perpetual Youth.  Likely, he started on the new batch shortly after giving her the older batch.  Margolette claims that was his very first batch.  With it, he brought to life the Glass Cat (which gives him a "birth date" of 1899).  Pipt doesn't use any of the magic words that Mombi and Tip used to bring to life Jack Pumpkinhead and the Sawhorse, which has led many to suspect that Pipt improved upon his initial recipe.  Ozma confirms that it was indeed Dr. Pipt who was the Crooked Magician that Mombi traded with for the Powder of Life.


Predictions: Baum predicts the course of pop music on page 137.


Precious metals: Gold is noted as being a common metal in Oz.


Prison: Dorothy can't recall a time when there was a prisoner in the capital, and Tollydiggle the jailor says that Ojo is her first prisoner.  Her home is the only official prison in Oz, and it exists for the sole purpose of loving rehabilitation through teaching inner strength and bravery: "We consider a prisoner unfortunate.  He is unfortunate in two ways — because he has done something wrong and because he is deprived of his liberty. Therefore, we should treat him kindly, because of his misfortune, for otherwise he would become hard and bitter and would not be sorry he had done wrong..." To conceal their identity from the public while heading to and from Tollydiggle's home, prisoners wear a white robe that covers their head.


Royalty: The nobles of the court are first mentioned, including courtiers and officials of the Emerald City.


Rudeness: Several characters display an uncharacteristic (for Oz) rudeness to their fellow beings: Ojo, Scraps, the Glass Cat and even the Shaggy Man are openly hostile to Vic, the Phonograph Player (even if one of his songs is a "coon song.")  The Sawhorse is also mean and nearly violent to the Woozy for no reason.  Dr. Pipt and Margolette are consistently rude to the Glass Cat, which they brought to life.  The Wizard rudely takes out the Glass Cat's brain for no other reason that others don't like her vain personality.


Sequel: Ojo and Unc Nunkie's royal history—only hinted at in this book—are revealed in Ojo in Oz.  The two also have a starring role in "Unc Nunkie and the White King of Oz" (in Two Terrific Tales of Oz).  Ojo also plays a large role in The Law of Oz and Other Stories and its sequels.


Swimming: At this point, Dorothy does not know how to swim.  This is true in The Royal Book of Oz, as well, but changes by the time of Ojo in Oz.


Vic, the Phonograph Player: Although Vic later marries, his bitterness at the harsh treatment he received when he first came to life sticks with him, manifesting in a form of rebellion, revealed in The Astonishing Tale of the Gump of Oz.


Woozy: The Woozy has no knowledge of his past.  He likely believes that the history presented in Oziana 1992's "The Woozy's Tale" to be true, though his real history—kept secret from him—is revealed in A Refugee of Oz.








The Hollyhock Dolls in Oz


Story: Spying a family making Hollyhock dolls, the Brownies take the dolls and bring them to life, making them their wives.  But while the Brownies are away, the dolls venture out too early in the year, and find themselves buried in snow. Upon their return, the Brownies are grieved to discover their wives dead.  So, traveling to the Last Secret Mound to see the Shamaness before the Great Pool of Life, they petition for the life of their dead wives.


As the key to restoring the dead Hollyhock dolls is to have their original maker sprinkle a magic powder on them, the Shamaness sends the Brownies to Oz, where Aunt Em, their original maker, is currently living.  Em is, meanwhile, feeling useless, and decides to talk to the Good Witch of the North, who has recently retired.  Dorothy, Toto and the Cowardly Lion join her.  En route, they encounter the Melon Collie, a sad dog whose pups have been abducted by the Manitas of Funglade, who arrest anyone whose not happy.  Toto's antics cause the pups and everyone else to smile, allowing their release.


A more serious threat comes with the Grave Robbers, a group of bandits who work for the Goblin Hood, a faceless entity who steals the worst character traits of his victims, and devours them.  Thanks to the Sawhorse and quick-thinking of the group, they escape and make their way to the town of Ogoshen, where they find the Good Witch of the North.


In the meantime, Uncle Henry, the Hungry Tiger, and the Brownies (who Glinda sent to the Emerald City) head North, and wind up in the town of Egglet, where they expect to find edible eggs, but instead meet Queen Eglantine and a community of sapient eggs laid by the Great Hen.  A white supremacist, who disagrees with her equal treatment of brown eggs, breaks the queen's shell, prompting Henry to ask the Brownies to use their magic to repair her.  The eggs destroy the villain, which grieves the queen, but she allows the Hungry Tiger to eat them, along with ham from the local ham tree.


Meanwhile Ozma, Glinda and the Wizard look into the threat posed by the Goblin and his robbers.  Goblin Hood discerns that the worst traits of these are insecurity, pride and guilt, and devours them.  Freed of these traits, the three don't hesitate to destroy Goblin Hood.  With his death, all the traits he'd swallowed over the years are released, including his destroyers who feel guilty about their actions.  The Grave Robbers, former victims of his, petition to stay in Oz.


Both of these groups converge in Ogoshen, where Aunt Em assists the Brownies in bringing her old dolls back to life.  The Good Witch of the North also assists Dorothy in bringing two new Ozlyhock Dolls to life after Ozma exempts her from the law prohibiting the practice of magic.


At the big party at the Emerald City, Ozma invites the Brownies to life in Oz, which they accept.  As they aren't sure where to live, they agree with their resurrected wives and the Ozlyhock Dolls to accompany Dorothy, Toto, Em, Henry, Melon Collie and her pups, the Lion, Tiger and Sawhorse on a journey to Henry and Em's original Kansas house, now situated in the Munchkin country where the cyclone had brought it.  (Meanwhile, the Tin Woodman and Scarecrow invite Scraps to the Tin Castle for the first time.)


After the Wizard provides her with a skeleton key they head off and encounter the former Deadly Poppy Field, which Ozma had some of General Jinjur's Army of Revolt remove in the first few years of her reign, leaving only small patches of poppies, and giving the rest to the Quadling farmers.  Ozma also had built a new bridge to replace the old one, and they cross it to meet the residents of Herville, which are made up of members of the Army of Revolt, and led by Brigadier Tanjrine.


The party next head to the home of the Munchkin mayor Boq and his wife Johanna, who tell Em that their former house is now a shrine, and a haunted one.  The door is still locked, as neither Dorothy, Em or Henry have visited it until now.  Em finds her old books (Uncle Tom's Cabin, Robin Hood, The Old Curiosity Shop and The Wonders of the Natural World), while the Ozlyhock dolls venture into the surrounding grass and discover that several weeds and vegetables have been brought to life by the creatures haunting the house.  They soon discover that these are the living remnants of the crushed body of the Wicked Witch of the East.  With the help of the Brownies, they ensnare the Wicked Witch Weeds, who Ozma decides to settle in a small kingdom of their own, guarded by the former Grave Robbers, who will live outside it.  Em and Henry decide to build a farmhouse in the country, outside of which the Brownies, their wives, Ozlyhock Dolls and Melon Collie agree to live as well.


Continuity notes:

Boq: Boq first appeared in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.  He and his wife Johanna appear again in Bucketheads in Oz


Dating: The story begins in February, but continues into spring, likely in the year 1863, as it's noted to be Indiana and "big guns" are booming in the south.  The only time this could have happened was Morgan's raid in July 1963.  This is also when Aunt Em is a young girl.  The narrative then jumps ahead several decades to 1905, specifically the time between The Patchwork Girl of Oz and Tik-Tok of Oz


Deadly Poppy Field: As of a few years into Ozma's reign, the Deadly Poppy Field is no more.  Only scattered poppies were allowed to remain, as other wildflowers were brought in to take their place.


Emily: This is the only tale of Aunt Em's childhood in Indiana, and she's noted as having married Henry when she was 16.


Crossovers: Story brings Brownies and Native-American Fairies (as distinct from European fairies) into the Ozian mythology.  Brownies (at least this group) are residents of the mortal world.


Farmhouse: Henry and Em's old farmhouse, which had blow to Oz with Dorothy in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, is now a shrine in the Munchkin country, complete with statues of the participants in the field outside.  Neither Em or Henry had been to visit it until the time of this story, and the house had remained locked since Dorothy's first visit to the house in the Oziana story "There's No Place Like Oz."  The weedy remnants of the Wicked Witch of the East's crushed body haunted the house until this time.


General Jinur: The remnants of her former Army of Revolt which didn't go back to their previous lives established the community of Herville under Brigadier Tanjrine, who explains that Jinjur sacrificed herself by marrying a man who agreed with their ideals, but who was somewhat of a nuisance (which explains Jinjur's later separation from him in "Four Views of General Jinjur").


Goblin Hood: Glinda says that Goblin Hood began as a sad or bad thought which grew into an obsession, and escaped (or outlived) its original host. 


Good Witch of the North: Tattypoo goes into retirement following the announcement that Ozma has passed the law forbidding magic.  This changes when Ozma comes to visit her, urging her out of retirement, and giving her a rare exemption to the law.


Great Pool of Life: Found deep under the Last Secret Mound, it is magically connected to the Great Book of Records, and allows the unnamed Shamaness to directly contact Glinda.


Great Shamaness: Unnamed in this story, but a good candidate would be Zauberlinda the Wise Witch from the book of the same name.


Law against Magic: Ozma agrees to re-think the law prohibiting magic, and makes an exemption in the case of the Good Witch of the North.  Ozma doesn't revise the law until several decades later, and then once more, two decades after that.  See The Ban on Magic in the Appendices for more details.


Magic Belt: Is present but not used, as Ozma says she prefers to do things naturally wherever possible.


Mellon-Collie: This animal is first mentioned in a poem spoken by Percy Vere the Forgetful Poet in chapter 14 of Grampa in Oz.


Red Wagon: Ozma's Red Wagon has a counterpart built by the Wizard called the Green Sulky. While this is rarely seen used, it makes sense that they would have more than one means of locomotion.









Tik-Tok of Oz


The 8th Oz book of the Famous Forty, Sovereign Sixty and Supreme Seventy-Five!


History: The narrative was inspired by the play The Tik-Tok Man of Oz, which Baum and composer Manuel Klein began working on in 1909, and which was itself based on (and called) Ozma of Oz.  Certain characters and details were subsequently changed for the book, such as Betsy to replace Dorothy, and Ozga to replace Ozma.  There is no Quox in the original.  Also, much of the dialogue (which was often sung) is reduced in the book version.  Nevertheless, the substance of the story remains the same and must be dated to that year or prior. 


Story: Bored of life in her uneventful kingdom, Queen Ann of Oogaboo decides to gather an army of 17 generals, majors and lieutenants, and one private, Jo Files, to take over Oz.  Reading of this in her Great Book of Records, Glinda simply spirits them to the continent outside the Deadly Desert.  Once there, Queen Ann and her men encounter a Rak, a dragon-like creature, but Jo Files manages to temporarily hinder the creature. 


Meanwhile, Betsy Bobbin from Oklahoma and Hank the Mule are shipwrecked, and end up on the shores of the Rose Kingdom, where Betsy discovers a greenhouse of sapient roses with the faces of girls.  The Royal Gardener tells them that the penalty for intrusion in Roseland is death, but the Shaggy Man crashes into the greenhouse, and shows him the magic Love Magnet that he carries. 


Shaggy explains that he's looking for his brother, who he finds out had disappeared in a Colorado mine 10 years earlier.  When the Gardener gives them a tour of the Rose Garden, where all the royals are growing, but yet green, Betsy spots a beautiful princess who is ripe.  The royal rose bushes, however, will not allow a female to rule over them, but Betsy and the Shaggy Man pick her anyway, and she comes to life.  It is discovered that she is Ozga, a fairy cousin of Ozma.  Shaggy lends her the love magnet, but it fails to work on her subjects because they have no hearts (not unlike the Mangaboos from Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz).


As they agree to help the Shaggy Man find his brother, they travel on and discover Polychrome whose fallen off her rainbow again.  Poly agrees to help them find the entrance to the Nome King's dominion, and reveals that once Ozga was exiled from her Rose Kingdom, she ceased being a fairy and has become a mere mortal.  On their journey, they find Tik-Tok down a well, which is where Ruggedo threw him.  Tik-Tok informs them that Ozma sent him to tell them that indeed the Shaggy Man's brother is a prisoner of Ruggedo.


The travelers next run into Queen Ann's army, but when Ann orders Private Files to bind them, he resigns his position and befriends them.  The Shaggy Man's Love Magnet causes Queen Ann and her army to cease hostilities, and together they head for the Nome King's dominions to conquer, the direction of which Ozga discovered from the flowers.  Across the Rubber Country and dry-water channel they head, but they're soon spotted by Kaliko, and heard by the Long-Eared Hearer, who tells Ruggedo that Queen Ann plans to plunder his kingdom.  In a rage, Ruggedo orders the entrance to the Hollow Tube made invisible, and as a result the adventurers fall through the earth into the realm of Tititi-Hoochoo on the other side of the world.


Over there, they meet Tubekins and other invisible inhabitants of Tititi-Hoochoo's country, who soon reveal themselves to be the beautiful kings and queens of the realm.  They are equal, but bow to their ruler, the Private Citizen.  When he is revealed as Tititi-Hoochoo, the Great Jin Jin, the party become afraid (except Betsy), but he agrees that the Nome King is to blame and will be punished. 


Erma, the Queen of Light takes Betsy and Poly to her crystal palace to be entertained, while the King of Animals takes Hank.  Betsy and Poly meet the Messengers of Light: Sunlight, Moonlight, Starlight, Daylight, Firelight and Electra.  Erma explains to Betsy that this land is "one of the chief residences of fairies who minister to the needs of mankind."  So as to avoid rivalry, and because Tititi-Hoochoo was "the only important personage... who had no duties to mankind," he was elected as their ruler.  Yet, he has no heart, but a high degrees of reason and justice.


Erma then tells Betsy that "the dragon was the first living creature ever made," and the oldest and wisest of all living things.  The Original Dragon was the first resident in that land, and still resides there, supplying them with wisdom. 


The next day, the Great Jinjin agrees to send the travelers back through the Hollow Tube with Quox as the Nome King's Instrument of Vengeance.  Quox is also being punished for having been disrespectful to the Original Dragon.  Once they're on the other side, Queen Ann determines that she and her army will conquer the Nome King, but Ruggedo has them thrown into a dungeon.  Next Betsy and Hank are captured, but Kaliko feels bad for them and hides them in his room.  Tik-Tok attempts to defeat the Nome King, but Ruggedo has a large diamond placed on top of him.  The Shaggy Man then enters to show Ruggedo the Love Magnet, but having overheard his plans, he is bound along with Jo Files and Ozga. 


Polychrome, however, is too quick to catch, and though the Nome King implores her to stay with him as either his daughter, wife, aunt or mother, she rebukes him.  In anger, Ruggedo uses his magic to turn Shaggy into a dove and Ozga into a fiddle.  Then he requests his prisoners brought before him to torture.  Poly runs out to find Quox, who is asleep. She awakens him, and he enters the Nome King's domain with the power of the ribbon the Great Jinjin gave him for this very purpose, and it robs Ruggedo of his magic.  Quox then opens a case and releases eggs which magically chase Ruggedo from his throne and out of the Nome Kingdom, where he is banished.  Quox disenchants Shaggy and Ozga, who say goodbye to him as departs through the Tube back to his realm.


Polychrome spies Ruggedo entering the secret way to the Metal Forest, a vast underground realm created by the Nomes where the trees are made of gold, the bushes of silver, the pathways of diamonds, and the floor of various jewels and gems.  Unable to find Queen Ann or her army, Kaliko, Polychrome, Shaggy, Files and Ozga follow Ruggedo into the forest and discover Queen Ann and her army.  They'd found a hidden passage from the dungeon to the Metal Forest.  Ruggedo fills his pockets with jewels and departs, after which Kaliko leads the travelers to the natural part of the forest where the Shaggy Man's brother (who they call the Ugly One) has been living for three years. 


Shaggy's brother, however, doesn't want to come out of his hut because the Nome King had magically turned him ugly to punish him before banishing him to the Metal Forest.  There, he had found trees that provided three-course meals and breakfasts.  With a handkerchief from his brother covering his face, the "Ugly One" reluctantly joined the travelers. 


Kaliko allowed Queen Ann and her army to gather jewels on their way out of the Metal Forest, but upon departure, they discover Ruggedo, who had stuffed so many gems his pockets burst.  Dejected and humbled, Betsy shames him into helping restore Shaggy's original appearance.  Repentant of his past actions, he tries, but can only remember that a kiss from a mortal maid, former fairy, or fairy will help.  Betsy tries, then Ozga, but both to no avail.  Finally, Polychrome's kiss restores him.


Feeling sorry for the former Nome King, Betsy asks Ruggedo if he's sorry, which he says he is. Kaliko then allows him to stay underground with the caveat that he behave himself.  After Polychrome departs for the rainbow, which appears in the sky, Queen Ann and her people fervently wish to go home.  Ozma hears this on the Magic Picture, as she had been following their progress, and has the Wizard spirit Private Files and Ozga, along with Queen Ann and her army to Oogaboo. 


She then uses a "wireless telephone" to contact the Shaggy Man (who also has one).  He has vowed not to abandon his brother or Betsy, and so will wander the world with them.  Ozma consults with the Wizard, Dorothy and Tik-Tok (who the Wizard transports to the Palace), who agree to have them invited to Oz.  Ozma counters that "the Land of Oz is not a refuge for all mortals in distress," and that the Shaggy Man's brother, as nice as he is, has done nothing to entitle himself to live in Oz.  But as no one cares to lose Shaggy, and Dorothy wishes a playmate who is not as busy as Ozma generally is, and as there is yet plenty of room in Oz, Ozma has the Wizard transport them to the palace.


Hank finds himself in the Royal Stable and suddenly able to speak.  Greeting the Cowardly Lion, Hungry Tiger and Sawhorse, they soon get into a disagreement over which girl is the sweetest, Betsy, Dorothy or Ozma, at which point the girls appear and scold the animals for fighting over them.  Ozma proclaims that "Our Land of Oz is a Land of Love, and here friendship outranks ever other quality."  The animals accept this and become friends.  When Betsy asks Dorothy if all the animals can talk, Dorothy says all but Toto because he's from Kansas, to which Ozma responds that Toto can talk, just as Billina, Eureka and Hank (who are all from the Outside World) can, but has chosen not to.  At this Dorothy calls over Toto, and tells him to prove to her that he can talk, which, reluctantly, he does before running off.


Continuity notes:

Betsy Bobbin: Betsy Bobbin's home state is revealed as Oklahoma.  Time Traveling in Oz indicates that her home town was Lone Grove (in Carter County). He parents are later discovered to be alive and well in the novella "Betsy Bobbin of Oz," from the book Two Terrific Tales of Oz.  She appears as a minor character throughout the Oz series, but has a starring role in The Hungry Tiger of Oz.


Dating: Tik-Tok of Oz occurs over the course of 13 days (see the Day-to-Day Chronology for details), possibly in the Fall. Because it is based on the 1909 The Tik-Tok Man of Oz play, and must take place prior to Rinkitink in Oz (since Kaliko is the Nome King in the latter story)—a book that was originally written in 1905—Tik-Tok of Oz must be dated in 1905, dictating a compression of books into a shorter period.  This is not unprecedented, and seems to be close to what Baum may have had in mind anyway, as Baum hints in the pumpkin graveyard in The Road to Oz, which dates the time from The Marvelous Land of Oz to  The Road to Oz as a year and ten months.  This may change with the forthcoming publication of the new version of King Rinkitink, which will eliminate Kaliko as Nome King, and restore it to Baum's original conception of Ruggedo. At that point, Tik-Tok of Oz might take place a year or two later, but no later than 1909.


Discrepancies and Mistakes:

1. Baum again errs (as he did in The Emerald City of Oz), in saying that Glinda and her castle are north of Oz, when they're established in the Quadling lands in the south (which is even shown on his map in this very book). 


2. Once again, it's stated that the Sawhorse is the only horse in Oz (first stated in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz), though this time it is the Sawhorse who proclaims it, which may be his perspective.  Both the Cowardly Lion and Tip are familiar with horses, and later Oz books show plenty of them. 


3. A common contradiction cited is that of Polychrome and the Shaggy Man who act as if they hadn't met before (which they did in  The Road to Oz).  Their interchange, however, reveals more of the absence of greeting than an outright contradiction.  They don't reintroduce themselves, and Polychrome knows the Shaggy Man's name.  One further indication that Baum hadn't forgotten that they'd met before is a few paragraphs earlier where Poly says "This is the second time my carelessness has left me on Earth."  So, what seems to be the case is that Baum missed adding an additional sentence/paragraph where Poly and Shaggy say hello, and Shaggy asks her what she's doing back on the ground.  Similarly, Baum leaves out Betsy's conversation with the Shaggy Man, as it's he who informs the readers that she's from Oklahoma. 


4. Despite his time in Ev, Hank the Mule seems unable to speak until he gets to Oz, which seems to indicate that animals don't speak in Ev.  This was different for Billina who (in Ozma of Oz) was able to speak immediately upon reaching Ev, as well as for Jim the Cabhorse, Eureka, and the Nine Tiny Piglets, all who were able to speak prior to arriving in Oz.  This discrepancy can be explained in the same way that Toto's is explained, namely that Hank doesn't think to try until he's in Oz.

Electra: What relationship Electra has to the Demon of Electricity has not been explored, but it does appear that the six Messengers of Light are actual avatars for the different light sources on earth, but not meant to be the actual sources themselves (as Erma mentions "the moon being hidden behind the earth's rim" and that the skies lend Starlight her power).


Hiergargo and the Hollow Tube: The Hollow Tube was "burrowed and built" in the year 19625401 by a magician named Hiergargo, a name that refers to a kind of evil high-priest and likely indicates an Erb or a dragon.  The etymology of "gargo" is cunning, crafty, malicious and in the Proto-Celtic, a horror.  It is closely associated with the Greek gorgo, origin of the serpent-headed Gorgons, and the Sanskrit garg (garga), which is a roar or growl, and is the root of the French gargouille (gargoyle).  "Hier," of course means powerful, supernatural, sacred.  That Hiergargo says he "burrowed" the hole also lends an animalistic aspect to the picture.  Tititi-Hoochoo calls the Tube's creation a foolish decision, particularly since it led to the explosion of a star when the magician first went through it (there is no word as to whether Hiergargo survived it).  The year, which on face value amounts to nearly two billion years ago, seems improbable in Baum's mythology, though it is an ancient description and might be interpreted in light of ancient cultures, such as the Sumerians, who used number systems that were sexagesimal (based on 60).  If so, this would bring Hiergargo's construction of the Tube to 32,709 BCE, approximately 12,000 years earlier than the Green Dragon of Atlantis (who lived 20,000 BCE, before humans came to be), as noted in Dorothy and the Wizard in Oz, and 18,000 years later than the time of the Original Dragon at 50,000 BCE.  The Hollow Tube itself is a called a black hole in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz, and indeed, its connection from one side of the globe to the other appears to indicate something far more than a mundane "burrowing."  It seems probably that Hiergargo discovered or utilized a magic portal and built around it.  As hinted in this book, and revealed in The Law of Oz and Other Stories, the tunnel is capable of moving to different locations.


Hotel Trees: The food-bearing trees in the Metal Forest are established in The Blue Emperor of Oz to have been created by the Wizard Wam, and stolen by Ruggedo and brought into his underground realm.


Land of An: Baum did not originally name the realm of Tititi-Hoochoo. As revealed in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz and The Law of Oz and Other Stories, the originally unnamed land of the Original Dragon, Tititi-Hoochoo and the fairy kings and queens is called at this time The Empire of the Fairy Fellowship, but it is only part of the Land of An, which had been bifurcated in 1764 and is restored two hundred years later in 1964.  As revealed in The Gardener's Boy of Oz, there are three entrances to this realm: 1. the tunnel of Hiergargo, 2. the fence from the land of the Sour Notes, and 3. a great bottomless fissure.  This land is deemed by Flora, the Queen of Gardens, as more important to humanity than Oz because "most of the fairies who govern natural phenomena, from electric storms and tides to koala bears and snapdragons, lived here at least part of their time."


Magic: The text doesn't specify how Glinda diverts Ann and her army across the Deadly Desert, and there is no indication that she spirited them there (which they would have noticed).  One suggestion made by Ruth Berman is that Glinda opened up the Nome King's tunnel, and routed them through it, though it's clear from The Red Jinn in Oz that Ozma only ever closed up the tunnel entrance on her side. So, it may be that Glinda either magically routed them through the tunnel or found some other undisclosed means to get them across the Deadly Desert.


The Magic Picture: As was first revealed in The Emerald City of Oz, the Magic Picture is capable of reproducing picture and sound, which is how Ozma is able to hear Queen Ann's wish to go home.


The Nome King: The Nome King is no longer named Roquat, but Ruggedo, which as noted in a footnote is the new name he chose after losing his memory.  The story of how this occurs, as well as how the Nome King remembered his missing Magic Belt is told in the Oziana 2004 story "Evrob and the Nomes."  Ruggedo also has magic powers, which he did not have in Ozma of Oz.  Kaliko says Ruggedo "learned a good many enchantments that we Nomes know nothing about." The story of this is told in "Ruggedo and the School of Magic."  His magic is taken away by Tititi-Hoochoo.


Oogaboo: Queen Ann notes (in chapter 1) that there are 90 people living in Oogaboo: "eighteen men, twenty-seven women and forty-four children."  The further adventures of Queen Ann and Oogaboo are revealed in Queen Ann in Oz and its sequel Jodie in Oz.  Queen Ann and Oogaboo also feature in the deluxe edition of Adolf Hitler in Oz and The Glass Cat of Oz.


Oz Books: Betsy knows of Oz, Ozma and Dorothy, but has not heard of the Nome King.  This is an indication that she's read some of the Oz books, and, appropriately, NOT Ozma of Oz, which wasn't published until 1907, two years after this story takes place.  This is in keeping with Baum's ideas that his books are records of historical events that have taken place in Oz, something which those in the Outside World generally believe to be a fiction, but which some believe is true.


Ozga: The question as to why a fairy-princess and cousin of Ozma is growing in the Rose Kingdom is not answered by Baum.  The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz: Book 1 explains that "Ozma had a fairy cousin who was turned into a rosebush, which then spawned both the Rose Rulers & the talking rosebushes before he was found and disenchanted by Lurline."  See the Rose Kingdom entry below for more details. This explains how Ozga is able to "converse" with the plants and flowers who point her in the direction of the Nome's underground kingdom.  Another mystery that's more difficult to explain is why Ozga ceased to be a fairy simply because of being exiled from the Rose Kingdom.  Yet, as the last Rose Ruler withered and died, necessitating that he be replanted, so too does Ozga, an event that's noted in the 2014 revised edition of Adolf Hitler in Oz.  Ozga goes on to marry Private Files.  Her additional power restoring plants is revealed in Thorns and Private Files in Oz.


Polychrome: Polychrome notes that she is thousands of years old, and that the Rain King is her uncle.  This has led to the conclusion that her father the Rainbow is the brother of the Rain King.


Predictions: Baum predicts the cell-phone by over seventy years.


Quox: This is the dragon Quox's first appearance, though chronologically he first appears in The Mysterious Chronicles of Oz.  He appears in Oz again in The Law of Oz and Other Stories.


Rak: An evil creature, similar to a dragon, and possibly related to them, but larger and fiercer.  They are feared by all.  In Bucketheads in Oz, author Phyllis Ann Karr addresses a thorny continuity issue regarding death and destruction: "When Private Files assured the rest of the Army of Oogaboo that if the Rak ate them 'each small piece will still be alive,' he was either misinformed or stretching the point to keep up morale.  Each small piece would have remained alive only until digested.  To be technical, much of it would then have been alive as part of the Rak's body; but if Files understood that bit himself, he did not explain it to his officers."


Rose Kingdom: Roseland's origins are explained in Book 1 of The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz.  It was begun by Omiarr, a fairy man, who had been enchanted into a rosebush by an evil wizard who'd been angry with him for not helping him conquer Mo.  As the wizard was later killed by a knight, Omiarr remained in that form for a century, giving forth seeds which became a vegetable man and woman.  Omiarr was later found again by Lulea and returned to the Forest of Burzee, though his offspring continue to grow and live in the Rose Kingdom.


The Shaggy Man's Brother: The name of Shaggy Man's brother in this book is not revealed, however, it's made explicit in four other sources.  Baum's musical production The Tik-Tok Man of Oz called him Wiggy, which can be a nickname for William, yet Baum never brings either name into book-canon, and it's not in every draft of The Tik-Tok Man of Oz screenplay either.  Perhaps Baum felt Shaggy and Wiggy were too silly.  In any case, Karyl Carlson and Eric Gjovaag, in Queen Ann of Oz, revealed that the Shaggy Man's actual name was actually Shagrick Mann.  This provides a surname for both men.  Mark E. Haas, in The Emerald Mountain of Oz, revealed his brother's first name to be Daniel.  The Magic Bowls of Oz, however, calls him Ichabod.  The former story takes place in 1999, while the latter is in 1952.  It appears that the Shaggy Man's brother might in fact have been named Ichabod Mann.  His brother may have called him "Wiggy" as a nickname, but Ichabod never cared for his given name, and opted to change it to Daniel at some point.  Unlike his brother, he had become wealthy. Early in Tik-Tok, the text says he was taken while working in the mines, which has led many to assume he was a miner.  However, the text contradicts this.  He's said to be wearing fine clothes (and silk stockings), which would be more than unusual for someone working the mines.  Closer examination of the text reveals that he owned the mine, and had made his fortune back when he "was a miner" and "dug gold out of a mine."  Years later, he returned to what was literally "his mine," likely to inspect it for more gold.  It was at this time that the Nomes abducted him.  Shaggy said it was ten years ago, which would date this abduction to 1895 (as this story takes place in 1905), however, Ruggedo was enchanted into a lizard by Glinda during this period (Cory in Oz), so 1893 is the latest year in which he could have abducted Ichabod.  Ichabod/Daniel Mann appears in several later stories, including The Magic Bowls of Oz, The Enchanted Gnome of Oz, The Emerald Mountain of Oz, and others.


Toto: The reason Toto hasn't spoken until this point is revealed in Oz-Story Magazine #6 short story, "Toto and the Truth."











The Sea Fairies


Book #69 of the Supreme Seventy-Five and the ninth Borderlands of Oz Book!


Story: While exploring a cave, Mayre "Trot: Griffiths, a young girl, asks her father's friend Cap'n Bill Weedles, a salty old sailorwho lives with her and her mother in Californiaif he's ever seen a mermaid.  When Cap'n Bill tells Trot that no one sees mermaids and lives, two mermaids (Clia and Merla) arrive to dispel that rumor, and invite them to come explore the underwater realm of the Sea Fairies. 


During an extensive tour of the sea and its inhabitants (and a preponderance of puns), Trot manages to be obnoxious to anyone whose not pretty or amusing to her.  Finally, the travelers are brought to greet the ancient Sea Serpent King Anko and the mermaid Queen Aquareine, who give them magical protection before accompanying them on the next leg of their journey. 


They're soon waylaid and abducted by Monster Devilfish who corral them to the home of Zog the Forsaken, who desires to kill them in order to punish his old enemy King Anko.  Kept prisoner in his palace, they meet Sacho, a happy-go-lucky servant, and several not-so-unhappy slaves, including Bill's brother Cap'n Joe (who may be his twin) who sows Zog's buttons. 


Zog feeds them well and gives them the run of his castle, but is intent on defeating Aquareine's powers. After several attempts fail, Aquareine and Cap'n Bill bribe his goldsmith to make the queen a golden sword.  Zog, however, thwarts her efforts, but at the last minute, King Anko arrives to destroy Zog. He then entertains Trot with stories, and sends the visitors back home.



Dating: This story takes place over the course of four days. No year is given, though it is before its sequel Sky Island, which is established (in The Lost Boy of Oz) to be three years prior to The Scarecrow of Oz.


Aquareine: Queen Aquareine is among the first of the mermaids created before mankind.  She is the daughter of King Aquarus (Wooglet in Oz). Aquareine returns in The Witch Queen of Oz, The Seven Blue Mountains of Oz, Book 1, Wooglet in Oz, the Oziana 38 story "Polychrome Visits the Sea Fairies," and Beach Blanket BabylOzHer appearance in The Royal Explorers of Oz reveals that she's King Anko's wife.


Cap'n Bill Wheedles: Cap'n Bill is said to be 61 years old.  His brother Cap'n Joe (apparently a twin) is discovered in the underwater kingdom of Zog, and later becomes ruler of that domain after Zog is killed and the slaves demand someone to lord over them.  The Glass Cat of Oz indicates that Cap'n Bob and Trot live in Laguna Beach, CA.  The Laughing Dragon of Oz indicates that Cap'n Bill and Cap'n Joe have another brother, Cap'n Bob, who was a lighthouse keeper until he too was swept into Oz.


Trot: Trot is eleven years old in this story.  Her first appearance is not promising, as she's portrayed as shallow, rude, disrespectful and mean-spirited.  Traveling through the homes of various underwater creatures, Trot manages to be insulting and offensive to the codfish, the mackerel, the sea spider (who at least has the presence of mind to tell her off), and the octupus, who Trot calls "horrid and horrible" for no other reason that that she doesn't like his appearance.  Even when he tries to explain to her that he's not dangerous or anything other than gentlemanly, she steadfastly refuses to listen and verbally abuses him to the point that he cries.  She also tells Zog, upon first meeting him, that he aught to kill himself!  Why Baum portrays her this way is unknown, though it may be an indication of her abuse at home, as he portrays her mother as verbally abusive to both her and Cap'n Bill in Sky Island.  Thankfully, Trot appears to have matured by the time of Sky Island and does not behave the way she does here in any subsequent story.


King Anko and the Sea Serpents: Only three of these ancient sea serpents exist, Anko (whose over a mile long), Unko, and Inko, and each has his own ocean.  Presumably, King Anko's is the Nonestic (and its lesser bodies of water, the Nonentic and the Rolantic), leaving the Pacific and Atlantic for his younger brothers.  Anko claims to have been first creature measured by Adam, and tells stories of the ancient Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzer and the Roman king Caesar.  As regards other sea serpents, such as the A-B-Sea Serpent of The Royal Book of Oz, these are clearly from a much later period and represent a very different type of creature.  King Anko makes several later appearances, such as in Wooglet in Oz, where he's still growing longer, and telling stories of Noah's wife and Poseidon, The Witch Queen of Oz, where he's turned into stone by Lurline's sister Enilrul, and The Royal Explorers of Oz, where he's shown to be able to shapeshift and is the consort of Queen Aquareine, and father to Princess Clia and Sally, amongst other mermaids.


Language: The mermaids cast a spell allowing Bill and Trot to understand the languages of the underwater inhabitants.


Monster Devilfish: Described as being reddish octupi who are evil spirits that serve under a Prince Devilfish, who serves Zog.


Zog: Said to be 27,000 years old, Zog is part-man, part-bird, part-fish, part-beast and part-reptile.  He has a beautiful face, along with traditional satanic horns, hoofs and goatee.  He is ashamed of anything below his torso (basically a serpent's coils), but his main problem is that he thinks of himself as evil, and has been holding a grudge against King Anko for 200 years, though why we don't yet know.  His undersea palace is beautiful, however, and he has many human servants whom he saved from shipwreck, and who he treats well.  His bark is apparently much worse than his bite.  Anko hates him, however, and he is killed.  Zog is one of the few Baum villains who is actually destroyed (and onscreen).  Zog and the Monster Devilfish are considered by some to be a kind of predecessor to H.P. Lovecraft's Cthulhu and Old Ones. It is not known if Lovecraft read any of Baum's stories, but Robert M. Price once suggested that The Wonderful Wizard of Oz was a direct inspiration for Lovecraft's novella The Dream Quest of Unknown Kadath.








Sky Island


Book #70 of the Supreme Seventy-Five and the tenth Borderlands of Oz Book!  This is a sequel to The Sea Fairies.


Story: Button-Bright arrives in California and meets Trot and Cap'n Bill.  When Bill doesn't believe his story about his Magic Umbrella, Button-Bright proves it to him, and they go on an adventure to what they think is a local island, but is in fact a fairy-island in the sky.


The island is divided into a blue and pink section, and separated by a large foggy swamp.  They arrive on the blue side first, and literally bump into the blue's leader Boolooroo, who angrily has them made slaves, and takes the umbrella.  Trot becomes servant of the Six Snubnosed Princesses, who mistreat her, but with the help of their six pets (who have also been abused by the princesses), manages to escape.  Cap'n Bill, meanwhile, meets with Ghip-Ghisizzle, who is next in line to rule, and who dislikes the tyranny of the Boolooroo, who he believes has long ago exceeded his reign (limited to a maximum of three hundred years).  Only the Royal Book can prove it, but the Boolooroo has locked it up.  Button-Bright, who is designated the royal shoeshine, is the key to their freedom, and he sneaks into the Boolooroo's rooms to find the Magic Umbrella.  Unable to locate it, he secures instead the Royal Book, but not before alarming the soldiers.  The three adventurers, in danger from the ruler and the people, who hate them, flee along with one of the Princesses' pet parrots and escape into the fog bank.


There they meet an alligator-like creature who likes parsnips and a giant frog who leads them to the Pink side of the Island.  The Pinkies are somewhat less violent, but are also divided between the sunrise and sunset portions of the island.  While they are well off, their ruler Tourmaline lives in poverty.  She doesn't know what to do with the strangers, since none have ever ventured unto their island and calls for a jury of twelve.  As they are split on whether to push them off the brink of the island or spare them, she calls the Witch Rosalie to arbitrate.  Rosalie believes they're innocent, but also believes that they're being protected by fairies, and desirous of meeting them, sides with the party that wishes to push them off the edge.


Rosalie's suspicions prove true when Polychrome shows up and comes to their aid.  She also reads and interprets their Laws, demonstrating that not only are the strangers in their rights to live, but that due to Trot having the lightest skin among the Pinks, she is actually the rightful ruler.  Tourmaline is thrilled to leave the duties to Trot, who goes about making some fair changes to the Law.  Trot then orders an attack on the Blues.


Trot's army crosses the Fog Bank with the help of the giant frogs.  They brandish spears, but as she doesn't wish to harm anyone, they use them mainly for intimidation.  The Blues hide behind their fortress until one time where they capture Cap'n Bill.  Trot sneaks into the castle to rescue him, and discovers that Ghip Ghisizzle is scheduled to be "patched" (cut in half and re-attached to another person).  She frees him and he escapes to the Pink side, where he discovers that indeed the Boolooroo has been cheating.  Trot confronts the Boolooroo, and with the help of an irate goat, defeats him and the princesses, exiling them.  Ghip-Ghisizzle is made king, while Rosalie is made queen of the Pinks, and after finding the Magic Umbrella, they depart again for home.



Characterizations: Button-Bright is clearly much older than he when he first appeared in The Road to Oz, and is actually much more mature and focused than he is the subsequent stories The Scarecrow of Oz and The Lost Princess of Oz, where he's immature and flighty.  This discrepancy is explained in The Magic Umbrella of Oz.


Dating: Trot notes that it's not the rainy season (in California), which runs from October through March.  This gives a rough estimate from April to September for the month this book takes place, which is some time after The Sea Fairies.


Fog Bank: The land crab in the Fog Bank territory of Sky Island "had the misfortune to tumble out of the Zodiac some time ago."  There's no indication if this is intended to be an aspect of this world or if it's simply a joke. Are the others associated with the zodiac? It is also unexplained why the animals in the Fog Bank are so huge. 


The Magic Umbrella: The elephant-handle of the Magic Umbrella becomes an actual elephant when the frogs refuse to allow the umbrella in their country.  Once across, it returns to its original form.  The umbrella also refuses to take the Boolooroo anywhere.  The actual history of the umbrella is revealed in Paul Dana's The Magic Umbrella of Oz.


Oz Books in Oz: Just as Betsy had in Tik-Tok of Oz, Trot has heard of the Land of Oz, clearly from Baum's books and the 1903 musical extravaganza.


Queen: By becoming Queen of Sky Island, Trot destroys the divisions that plague both sides, and within each side.  She places Ghip Ghisizzle in power, deposing the malevolent Boolooroo and destroying his patching machine.  Trot also places the good witch Rosalie in power over the Pinks, relieving Tourmaline, who doesn't wish to rule, but also changing the law so that the Pink rulers can have as much as their citizens (though not more.)


Sequel: Trot revisits Sky Island again in The Witch Queen of Oz, and then again in the Oziana 1984 story "The Blue Raindrops of Oz," which features the return of the Boolooroo and the witch-queen Rosalie.












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